UD entomologist discusses stoneflies, official state macroinvertebrate

June 25, 2013 under CANR News
stoneflies

Frank Peairs, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org

On a recent morning, Ingrid Feustel and Ed Trommelen donned rubber boots, grabbed nets and collection buckets, and splashed their way into a tributary of the Red Clay Creek in search of stoneflies.

The duo are spending the summer conducting a macroinvertebrate survey as Stream Watch interns for the Delaware Nature Society.

As Feustel set out sampling jars, Trommelen kicked up pebbles with the toe of his boot, then dragged the net over the churned-up water. “I’ve got some stoneflies,” said Trommelen, after a glance inside the net.

Most people would probably only notice leaves, twigs and pebbles but Trommelen quickly identified the stoneflies, even though they’re itty-bitty (one-half to 1 1/2 inches long as adults and even smaller as juveniles.)

The interns collected stoneflies throughout the morning, making note of how many were in each sample, as well as any other macroinvertebrates — such as mayflies, caddisflies and worms — that they found. While it’s certainly fun to splash around a sun-dappled creek on a June day, why would the Delaware Nature Society care how many stoneflies are in local creeks?

“Stoneflies serve as the canary in the coal mine in terms of assessing the water quality of streams and creeks,” said Brian Kunkel, an entomologist with University of Delaware Cooperative Extension. “It makes sense to focus on stoneflies. Stoneflies need running water that contains lots of oxygen. Scientists can tell if a stream is polluted or not based on whether stoneflies are present.”

In fact, the stonefly is such an excellent indicator of water quality that it was chosen to be the official state macroinvertebrate. The May 4, 2005, proclamation that made it official says that the designation of the stonefly was a means “whereby Delaware state government could recognize the importance of excellent water quality and the vital role played by healthy aquatic ecosystems in Delaware.”

Delaware actually has three official insects – the lady bug, the tiger swallowtail (which is the state butterfly) and the stonefly. The distinguishing feature of a macroinvertebrate is that it doesn’t have a backbone.

Stoneflies aren’t just an indicator of pure water; they also help to keep it that way. Most species are herbivores; they eat decaying vegetation and algae, said Kunkel.

There are 38 known species of stoneflies that call Delaware home. Nineteen live exclusively in the Piedmont, in the northern one-fourth of New Castle County; eight live in the Coastal Plain, which makes up the other three-fourths of the state; and 11 can be found in both the Piedmont and the Coastal Plain.

Adult stoneflies are weak fliers and like to hang out on stones (hence their name) and also on logs. If they lose their grip and fall into the water they may get eaten by trout, which prefer mayflies but will eat stoneflies if that’s the only food around.

Even if it doesn’t become dinner for a trout, an adult stonefly only lives about three to four weeks. Nymphs, on the other hand, which make their home in the water, can exist for one to three years in their immature state, says Kunkel.

Good places to search for stoneflies, says Kunkel, are the White Clay and Red Clay creeks in New Castle County, the Murderkill River in Kent County, and Woodenhawk, a tributary of the Marshyhope Creek, in Sussex County.

Delaware Nature Society has been conducting a Stream Watch program for 20-plus years, says Ginger North, the society’s associate director for natural resources conservation. During that time the Red Clay Creek has shown improvement in its water quality.

“Twenty years ago, the Red Clay was classified as a waterway that was severely impaired,” says North. “It only supported black fly larvae and other macroinvertebrates that can tolerate polluted water. But today, stoneflies can be found in the Red Clay’s tributaries.”

Article by Margo McDonough

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Master Gardener Native Plant Teaching Garden Open House Set for June 11

June 7, 2013 under CANR News, Cooperative Extension

J.W Wistermayer in the Master Gardeners Native Teaching GardenGardens are teeming with sights, sounds and tactile experiences. They’re meant to be used and enjoyed, not merely gazed at from a distance, says University of Delaware Master Gardener J.W. Wistermayer.

So, even though Wistermayer spends 5 to 10 hours a week tending to the New Castle County Master Gardener Native Plant Teaching Garden, he just chuckles when he sees that the garden’s plant identification tags have been rearranged.

“When tags are out of place, I know it means that kids are getting in here and discovering the garden,” says Wistermayer. “Our garden is next to the university’s Laboratory Preschool and Early Learning Center. At drop-off and pick-up times, kids and parents come look for new blooms, check to see if birds are in the bird boxes, and listen to the wind chimes. There is one particular path through three-foot-high plants that little kids love because they’re surrounded and hidden by all the foliage.”

The Native Plant Teaching Garden gets kids excited about plants and nature but its primary purpose is to promote the use of native plants in home landscapes, whether that landscape is several containers on a city apartment deck or an acre-plus in suburbia.

If you’re stumped about what to do with a spot where nothing grows, or how to jazz up a boring landscape bed, the Native Plant Teaching Garden is the place to go. Located on the grounds of the New Castle County Cooperative office in Newark, the garden features several distinct areas, including a butterfly garden, a rain garden, a meadow, a perennial border, and a foundation landscape planting.

The Master Gardeners also maintain a fruit and vegetable teaching garden, and a compost demonstration site, both of which are located behind the county office.

If you had to sum up the Native Plant Teaching Garden in one word, it would have to be “unexpected.” The garden features a fresh, exciting design that proves without a doubt that “native plant” isn’t synonymous with dull.

The foundation landscape bed, running the length of the county office, is a perfect example of this unexpected nature. While many of us select the same-old pink azaleas or red-blossomed dwarf cherries to line our homes, the Native Plant Teaching Garden’s foundation planting is full of unexpected textures, colors and plant choices. Such as the feathery foliage and steel blue flowers of threadleaf bluestar. Or the brushy blooms of fothergilla, which will sport fiery foliage in fall. There’s nothing formal or structured about either of these native species, yet they work well in this foundation planting.

Another unexpected touch is the green roof on top of the garden arbor. Covered with vegetation, this green roof absorbs water and creates habitat for wildlife. If it was used on a home or business, its insulating effects could lower cooling and heating costs, too.

One of Wistermayer’s favorite spots in the garden is a wooden bench positioned under a river birch. From there, he can hear wind chimes that hang in a nearby maple. Wistermayer often stops by the garden on Sunday to water the plants and ends his work session with a bit of quiet time relaxing on the bench.

The Master Gardeners will be hosting an Open House at the Native Plant Teaching Garden on June 11 from 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. They’ll be joined by Brian Kunkel, an entomologist with UD Cooperative Extension, and Carrie Murphy, horticulture agent for New Castle County Extension. The Open House is free but pre-registration is necessary. Email Murphy at cjmurphy@udel.edu.

Article by Margo McDonough

Photo by Danielle Quigley

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UD Extension Specialist Shares Favorite Spots for Outdoor Fun

May 31, 2013 under CANR News

Crystal and Quinn Phillips pick strawberriesDot Abbott has fond memories of picking strawberries with her dad as a child. They would head out on early summer weekends, with buckets that her grandfather had made, and not return home until they had 12 quarts – enough for homemade jam, shortcakes, and eating out of hand. She recalls spotting lady beetles on the plants, hearing birdsong in nearby woods, and noticing that the berries hidden under leaves weren’t fat, red and juicy the way that berries exposed to the sun were.

Today, on summer weekends, Abbott has a hunch that many kids are inside, in front of TV or computer screens, rather than outside enjoying activities with their families.

“Staying inside is the default mode; it’s the new norm for most kids. A child is three times more likely to play video games regularly than to ride a bike,” says Abbott, a renewable resources agent with University of Delaware Cooperative Extension. “But studies show that regular, unstructured playtime in nature makes kids smarter, calmer, more self-disciplined and cooperative.”

Plus, getting outside is just plain fun – especially during the long, sunny days of summer. If you’re short on ideas of where to go and what to do, Abbott is happy to help. Here’s what she suggests for outdoor fun this summer:

Eerie Evenings at Trap Pond

It looks like a lake [but] a short paddle away, it begins to turn into a swamp and there are loads of lily pads and bald cypress trees and the water starts looking really murky and it feels like you might run into an alligator or something. You definitely don’t want the canoe to tip over in here.

–Review of Trap Pond State Park on TripAdvisor.com

“Boating amid the bald cypress trees at Trap Pond is kind of eerie, especially at night or on foggy mornings,” says Abbott. “As they get older, it can be harder to get kids excited about family outings but even middle schoolers and teens should love a night boat ride at Trap.”

Families can learn about “the eerie sounds and spooky creatures” of Trap’s cypress swamp during special evening pontoon tours June 12, July 10 and Aug. 14.  The state park, near Laurel, is home to the northernmost natural stand of bald cypress trees in the U.S.

The park also offers daytime pontoon tours on weekends, as well as guided kayak and canoe eco-tours. Plus, you can rent rowboats, pedal boats, canoes and kayaks and go out on your own. Boat rides and rentals are available through Labor Day weekend.

For more info, call the park at 875-5153.

Who Knew? Fishing at State Forests

Delaware’s state forests are one of the best-kept secrets for family fun. They’re managed primarily for forest management, so don’t expect to see a concert stage or water park, like at some of the state parks. But you will find trails for walking, running, biking or horseback riding at Blackbird and Redden state forests, plus ponds for catch-and-release fishing. Taber, the smallest of the three state forests, is used most often for hunting. Abbott likes the fact that Blackbird, located on the border of New Castle and Kent counties, has a paved nature trail designed for wheelchair accessibility. To learn more about the state forests, go to http://dda.delaware.gov/forestry/forest.shtml/.

Forget Route 66 – Route 9 is Where It’s At 

If you’re bored some Sunday afternoon, hop in the car and head to Route 9. This 52-mile stretch of meandering country road parallels the western shore of the Delaware River and Bay and offers views of the largest area of preserved coastal marshland on the East Coast.

There are several great spots to stop and view wildlife on the route, says Abbott, including the Port Penn Interpretative Center, where she enjoys taking a short hike into the marsh. At the other end of Route 9, close to the John Dickinson Plantation in Dover, is the new Delaware National Estuarine Research Reserve (DNERR) Education Center at St. Jones Reserve. Like Port Penn, it features a boardwalk into the marsh. And don’t miss Bombay Hook Wildlife Refuge, near Smyrna, says Abbott. There are several trails through this 16,000 acre refuge, including the Black Swamp Trail, which is handicapped accessible. Plus, kids will love the fact that three of the trails have observation towers.

Overnight Camping at State Parks

Tell ghost stories around a campfire on the beach. Gaze at the stars with a telescope (plus, with a naturalist who can tell exactly what you’re looking at). Snuggle into sleeping bags as your kids enjoy their first campout of the summer – or perhaps their first campout ever.

You can do all this with “Delaware Outdoor Family,” a new overnight camping program offered at Bellevue, Brandywine Creek and Delaware Seashore state parks this summer. It’s offered in conjunction with the Children in Nature/No Child Left Inside initiative, a state effort to get kids outside more.

Family camping on your own is available throughout the summer at Lums Pond, Killens Pond, Cape Henlopen, Delaware Seashore and Trap Pond state parks. But “Delaware Outdoor Family” is a guided experience, led by park staff, giving campers access to astronomy programs and other special experiences. For more info, go to www.destateparks.com.

Article by Margo McDonough

Photo by Danielle Quigley

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‘Earth Perfect?’ symposium to take place at UD, area gardens June 6-9

May 28, 2013 under CANR News

ApplecrossAnnette Giesecke is a professor of classics and chair of the ancient Greek and Roman studies department at the University of Delaware She also is the mastermind behind “Earth Perfect? Nature, Utopia, and the Garden,” a June 6-9 symposium taking place at UD and several local horticulture venues.

It may seem unusual for a professor of classics to organize a horticulture symposium. But this isn’t a garden-variety garden conference. If you’re only looking for tips on pruning or growing the perfect tomato, you’ve come to the wrong place.

“’Earth Perfect?’ will showcase the garden as an emblem of the ideal human relation with nature,” says Giesecke. “Anybody who is interested in the importance and meaning of gardens, and the politics of gardens, will want to attend. It’s not just an event for academics and garden professionals.”

Frankly, even those of us who never stopped to think about the meaning of gardens – we just know we like them — may find the symposium worthwhile. The eclectic program includes a lecture by UD professor McKay Jenkins on the environmental and health risks of lawn chemicals. There’s a workshop on creating “night spaces” and another on designing with edible plants. You can learn about slave gardens in the antebellum South or contemporary urban vertical farms.

Keynote speakers include Emma Marris, author of Rambunctious Garden: Saving Nature in a Post-Wild World, and UD’s Doug Tallamy, author of Bringing Nature Home: How You Can Sustain Wildlife with Native Plants. Mixed in with the lectures and workshops are special tours of Winterthur, Longwood Gardens, Chanticleer and the Mt. Cuba Center.

Giesecke, who has written widely about the gardens of ancient Greek and Rome, was inspired to create the symposium after co-editing a publication also called Earth Perfect? Nature, Utopia and the Garden.

Sue Barton, an ornamental horticulture specialist with UD Cooperative Extension, is excited to be speaking at the symposium because she wants to get more people thinking and talking about her lecture topic — livable ecosystems as a model for suburbia.

What’s a livable ecosystem?

The easiest way to explain it is to say what it’s not – a livable ecosystem isn’t a chemically treated monoculture of turfgrass with a few non-native, invasive trees plunked down in the front yard, too far from the house to shade it in summer or serve as a windbreak in winter.

In other words, a livable ecosystem is a far cry from what many suburban yards look like today.

“The traditional home landscape contains a limited palette of plants, has large areas of regularly mowed lawn, and provides relatively few ecosystem services,” says Barton. “Forests and meadows, on the other hand, provide many ecosystem services.”

Rest assured, you don’t need to remove every blade of grass and turn your yard into a jungle to create a livable ecosystem.

Take, for example, the attractive new landscape at a home in the Applecross neighborhood off Route 100 in Greenville. It does look a bit different than the neighbors’ yards – for one thing, there’s a 6,000-square-foot meadow of native grasses. It also features a newly reforested area, adjoining an existing wooded tract.  Invasive plants have been removed and replaced by white oaks, blueberry bushes, ornamental grasses and other native species.

Grass plays a role, too, but it’s been bumped from star of the show to a member of the supporting cast.

“Turf on the property is used purposefully, for recreation areas, circulation, or as the green carpet that sets off other plantings,” says Barton.

The yard is part of a UD research project on livable ecosystems. “We want to see if replacing the typical suburban yard of mostly grass with one containing diverse vegetation can help protect the environment and make landscapes more sustainable,” she says.

The Applecross property is one aspect of a multidisciplinary project involving five UD faculty members and dozens of undergraduate and grad students. Another research site is located at Winterthur, where the UD team is collecting water quality data in three streams that drain from three different landscapes – mowed lawn, meadow, and forest. They’re also collecting data on the diversity of plants, insects and birds in each of these settings.

If you won’t have a chance to hear Barton at the Earth Perfect symposium, you’ll have a second chance on June 14, at a Sustainable Landscape Tour. Sponsored by UD Cooperative Extension, the program includes a visit to the Applecross property, as well as a tour of a bio-swale and wetlands on the UD farm. Barton also will be hosting a shorter tour of the Applecross property later this season. To find out more about these Extension events, email Barton at sbarton@udel.edu.

To register for Earth Perfect or learn more at this symposium, call 831-2793 or go to this website.

Article by Margo McDonough

Photo by Danielle Quigley

This article can also be viewed on UDaily.

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Kleczewski joins UD Cooperative Extension as plant pathology specialist

May 15, 2013 under Cooperative Extension

Nathan Kleczewski has joined the University of Delaware Cooperative Extension Service as the plant pathology specialist. He replaces Bob Mulrooney, who retired after 38 years with UD Cooperative Extension.

Kleczewski received his bachelor of science degree in biology from University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh and his doctorate in plant pathology from Ohio State University. He did postdoctoral research at Indiana and Purdue universities. Most recently, he worked as a plant pathologist with FMC Agricultural Products.

At UD, Kleczewski’s work will concentrate on plant pathology in field crops. Although he has only been in his new job since May 1, Kleczewski has hit the ground running. He already has set up meetings with local growers to better understand their needs.

“My work is grower-driven,” notes Kleczewski. “All of my applied research projects will focus on the concerns of Delaware’s farmers.”

KleczewskiNathanRecognizing the ever-increasing role that technology plays in daily life, Kleczewski will create a Facebook page where he will post up-to-the-minute information on plant diseases in Delaware and surrounding states. A farmer in the field need only glance at his or her smartphone to find out the latest issues and learn how to prevent or mitigate crop loss.

“We are very pleased to have Nathan join our Extension team. Each growing season brings its own disease challenges and having plant pathology expertise on our team in Delaware is a critical aspect of successful crop production and sustaining Delaware agriculture,” says Michelle Rodgers, associate dean and director of UD Cooperative Extension and Outreach.

Kleczewski grew up in rural Wisconsin. Both his maternal and paternal grandparents owned dairy farms and his uncles currently work as dairy farmers. He always enjoyed studying the sciences but when the time came to enter graduate school he told a college professor, “I want to work in the sciences but I want to do work that my uncles will understand and appreciate. I want to make a difference in the lives of people I know.”

His professor suggested plant pathology and Kleczewski quickly discovered that it was the perfect discipline for his interests. Kleczewski’s wife, Victoria, also works in the agricultural field; she is employed in field development for DuPont.

Kleczewski is enjoying a busy spring. He and his wife settled on a new house in Middletown in late April, and are looking forward to the birth of their first child later this month.

Article by Margo McDonough

Photo by Danielle Quigley

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Native Delaware: UD expert releases list of top five bad bugs of summer

May 7, 2013 under CANR News, Cooperative Extension

Summer is right around the corner and along with the good (long days, holiday weekends and lush, green landscapes) comes the bad (humidity, beach traffic and bugs).

Admittedly, there are plenty of beneficial insects that pollinate flowers or gobble pests, and plenty of insects that just hang around, doing neither bad nor good.

In fact, beneficial insects far outnumber pests, according to Brian Kunkel, an entomologist with University of Delaware Cooperative Extension. “More than 97 percent of arthropods typically seen in the home landscape are either beneficial or innocuous,” he says.

But it’s the other three percent that can drive us crazy, wreaking havoc with our prized rose bushes, tomato plants or elm trees. Or, in the case of biting insects, leaving itchy welts all over us.

Kunkel has pulled together a list of the worst pests – what he’s dubbed the “top five bad bugs of summer.”

“Another entomologist might come up with a very different ranking – pest conditions change from year to year and from location to location. I’ve had people call me about a stink bug outbreak in one neighborhood and the next neighborhood only had mild issues,” notes Kunkel. “But these ‘top five bad bugs’ are the ones that Extension gets the most calls about; the ones that inflict the most damage in area gardens, nurseries, and neighborhoods.”

Here’s Kunkel’s list of the top five bad bugs of summer 2013:

1. Scale pests

2. Wasps

3. Bagworms

4. Japanese beetles

5. Stink bugs

You might be wondering why cicadas didn’t top this list – after all, it’s been all over the news about the millions of cicadas ready to emerge in the Mid-Atlantic after a 17-year slumber.

While plenty of cicadas will be flying around southeastern Pennsylvania, southern New Jersey and Maryland this summer, Delaware will see only the occasional cicada crossing the state line. That’s because Delaware’s brood – called Brood X – is still burrowed under ground and isn’t due to emerge until 2021.

Bagworms are a pest in DelawareFar more worrisome than big, fat cicadas are teeny tiny scale pests, notes Kunkel. In fact, scale pest are the single biggest threat to Delaware home landscapes virtually every growing season, he says.

These insidious pests are easy to overlook because of their diminutive size and inconspicuous color. Oystershell scales are about one-eighth of an inch long and dark brown, blending right into the tree branches that they latch onto. It usually isn’t until the branch is dying that the homeowner realizes that these bumps are actually insects sucking sap from the tree.

While oystershell scales prefer certain trees – willows, lilacs, dogwoods and poplars here, as well as aspens and cotoneasters out West – they aren’t picky. They’ve been found on 130 different species of plants. And oystershell is just one of 8,000-plus different scale insects; almost every plant is vulnerable to some type of scale insect.

Kunkel rates wasps as the number two bad guy, not because of damage they do to the landscape but because of the damage they can do to people.

Only the female wasp stings but when she does, you’re going to know it. Even a normal, non-allergic reaction usually results in pain, swelling and redness around the sting site. A localized reaction can bring swelling to an entire limb. Allergic reactions, of course, require immediate medical attention.

Next up on the bad bug list are bagworms. Kunkel says there is variability from year to year in the size of Delaware’s bagworm population. “Some years are a lot worse than others,” he says.

Like scale pests, bagworms start out very small and aren’t likely to be noticed by the homeowner. They are generalists in their eating habits – they are known to eat about 100 different species of plants, including cherries, pines, junipers, arborvitae and birch.

Japanese beetles makes Kunkel’s list primarily because of Sussex County outbreaks in recent years “The population of Japanese beetles in Sussex is much higher than in Kent and New Castle counties,” says Kunkel. “Georgetown has some decent-sized populations but throughout Sussex they can be an issue.”

The last pest to make it onto the bad guy list – the stink bug – is the one everyone loves to hate. The brown marmorated stink bug made serious inroads into Delaware in 2011, particularly in New Castle County. Last summer, the population was considerably lower.

Farmers and homeowners in other states have seen considerable damage to their plants. Fruit orchards have been particularly hard hit.

“Thus far, brown marmorated stink bug has been more of a nuisance than a pest in the home landscape in Delaware,” says Kunkel. “However, some of our farmers have experienced issues. We have a number of UD research projects underway so we can work to control this pest.” 

Help for what’s bugging you

Got a pest problem in your yard or garden? Call Cooperative Extension’s free garden help line. In New Castle, call 831-8862; in Kent call 730-4000; in Sussex call 856-2585, ext. 535.

Article by Margo McDonough

Photo by Brian Kunkel

This article can also be viewed on UDaily.

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Kent and Sussex Master Gardener taking applications for Class of 2013

May 1, 2013 under Cooperative Extension

The application period is open for Master Gardener training in Kent and Sussex counties. Master Gardeners enjoy gardening, have gardening experience, want to learn more about gardening and have a desire to help others in their community. Following an intensive twelve-week training program with day-time classes alternating between the two county Extension offices, the trainees volunteer a minimum of 45 hours during their first year before becoming official Master Gardeners. Training is held every other year in the fall. Sessions for the Class of 2013 will begin in September (right after Labor Day and will be completed before Thanksgiving).

Master Gardeners are working volunteers and are supported by Delaware Cooperative Extension through the University of Delaware and Delaware State University Extension offices. Master Gardeners are part of a vibrant community of individuals dedicated to growing a greener Delaware, with a more bio-diverse and sustainable environment. They extend the home garden outreach of Delaware Cooperative Extension, staffing garden “hotlines” for much of the year, offering information at events such as community fairs, festivals and farmers’ markets, talking to local civic groups and working with youth groups and schools. Many provide workshops on favorite garden topics and are available through a speakers’ bureau to make presentations for community groups upon request. A dedicated group of puppeteers in Sussex County perform an educational version of “Peter Rabbit” to the delight of children of all age

Tracy Wootten, horticultural agent for Sussex County, said, “Without these wonderful volunteers, Cooperative Extension would not be able to provide the impressive amount of outreach that is being offered to local Delaware communities.”

The training program includes formal lectures, discussion sessions, tours, workshops, and problem-solving sessions. Advanced training opportunities include state, regional and national workshops, lectures at monthly business meetings, special training sessions, and the shared experiences of a group of skilled, experienced gardeners.

The application can be found online at http://extension.udel.edu/lawngarden/master-gardener-volunteer-educators/become-a-master-gardener/

Send completed applications to: Kent County Extension Office, 69 Transportation Circle, Dover, 19901.

All applications must be received by June 1, 2013. Class size is limited. All applicants must attend a reception on June 20, 2013, from 6 to 8 p.m. at the Kent County Extension office. If accepted, you will be notified by letter and will receive further information about classes. It is the policy of the Delaware Cooperative Extension System that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, color, sex, disability, age or national origin. The Delaware Cooperative Extension Master Gardener Program is provided in coordination with the University of Delaware and Delaware State University.

For more information, contact Tracy Wootten or Tammy Schirmer in Sussex County, (302) 856-2585, ext. 544 or Maggie Moor-Orth in Kent County, (302) 857-6426, or the University of Delaware Paradee Center Kent County Extension office at (302) 730-4000.

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Extension to host Retail Farm Market School

April 23, 2013 under Cooperative Extension

On Wednesday, May 29, Delaware Cooperative Extension will conduct a day-long Retail Farm Market School for anyone who handles, processes or merchandises fresh market produce, such as local farm market vendors. The school is sponsored by the University of Delaware Cooperative Extension, Penn State University, Delaware Department of Agriculture and Delaware Agritourism Association. The course runs from 9:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. and will be held at the Elbert N. & Ann V. Carvel Research and Education Center in Georgetown. Instructors will be Gordon Johnson from UD and John Berry from Penn State. The tuition is $45.

Topics will include produce handling and merchandising, customer service, sanitation and fresh cut produce. The course will be comprised of several delivery modes including professionally produced video segments, take-home text, post-harvest handling references, hands-on activities and a “certification quiz.”

Each school participant will receive a full-day of retail farm marketing education and networking, a 40-page text that follows the school curriculum, a professional produce knife, a digital produce thermometer, sign blanks and the opportunity to receive a Retail Produce Professional certificate.

The school material is appropriate for new employee training and as a refresher for existing employees who work with fresh produce.

University of Delaware Cooperative Extension welcomes and encourages public participation of their programs, events, and workshops scheduled for the public. All reasonable efforts will be used to meet the accessibility requests. Please contact the office two weeks prior to event to request assistance with any special needs you may have.

Registration deadline is Friday, May 17. Please contact Karen Adams at adams@udel.edu or call (302) 856-2585 ext. 540 to register, obtain additional information and directions. Class is limited to the 35 seats.

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Rose Rosette Disease Summit

April 18, 2013 under CANR News
Pictured from left to right: Steve Hutton, Michael Dobres  Kathleen Case, and Thomas Bewick

Summit participants pictured from left to right: Steve Hutton, Michael Dobres
Kathleen Case, and Thomas Bewick

A two-day national Rose Rosette Disease Summit was held April 15-16 in Newark with researchers from across the country meeting to discuss the disease and plans for future research.

Rose rosette disease (RRD) is caused by the rose rosette virus, carried by a tiny eriophyid mite.

The summit was organized by Tom Evans, professor in the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences at the University of Delaware, and Michael Dobres of the Conard-Pyle Company, and sponsored by the All-America Rose Selections and the Garden Rose Council, Inc.

The conference included a talk given by Nancy Gregory, of UD’s Cooperative Extension, on occurrence and mapping of the disease. RRD has been seen in Mid-Atlantic States since approximately 2001, originally observed on multiflora rose in the landscape. In recent years, RRD has been identified on cultivated roses, including Knockout rose, and has also been identified in public gardens.

University scientists, plant breeders, Cooperative Extension personnel, USDA representatives, private consultants, and rose growers discussed the need for good diagnostic tools, accurate mapping, cultural controls, as well as breeding for resistance. Current control strategies include keeping roses in good vigor, pruning, mite control, and cultural controls such as reducing water on leaves.

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Bloom season kicks into high gear for garden enthusiasts

April 11, 2013 under CANR News, Cooperative Extension

In April, bloom season kicks into high gear in Delaware. In fact, it might be the single best month to get outside and enjoy the views at the area’s world-class gardens.

At Winterthur, the Winterhazel Walk will soon be the star of the show, reports Linda Eirhart, assistant director of horticulture for the museum, which features a 60-acre naturalistic garden in the midst of nearly 1,000 acres of land.

Delaware bloom season kicks off“The cold weather has held things back but before long the Winterhazel Walk will dazzle with its combination of soft yellow winter hazel and the warm lavender of Korean rhododendron. This is under planted with hellebores, which are still going strong,” she says.

These species are non-native but many of Winterthur’s native plants will soon be in bloom, too. Bloodroot is a sweet little perennial with pure white, cup-shaped flowers. You can find it in Azalea Woods and other wooded areas and thickets throughout the property.

Spring beauty is another little charmer, sporting white petals with stripes that vary from pale pink to bright pink. Like bloodroot, it grows in woodlands. Pay attention to weather conditions during your visit to Winterthur. If it’s warm and sunny, spring beauty will open its petals but on a cloudy day or at night the petals close up and nod downward.

Winterthur’s bluebells aren’t in bloom quite yet but the buds have appeared and will soon burst into bloom. Eirhart says that bluebell is her favorite native wildflower.

“I love the bluebell’s shades of blues and the touch of pink and purple you can get in the blossoms,” she says. “Between the color of the flower buds and the last fading flowers, there is a good length of time of color interest.”

Sue Barton also is a fan of Virginia bluebells, which grow in clusters near the creek on her property. “It’s fun to come upon a mass of bluebells while walking in the woods,” says Barton, who is ornamental horticulture specialist for University of Delaware Cooperative Extension.

But it’s flowering redbuds, not bluebells, that signal that spring has sprung to Barton.

“The redbud has an extremely colorful, dark purple or pink flower and an unusual habit of flowers borne directly on the stem,” she says. “I like the ‘Forest Pansy’ cultivar because of its attractive bronze foliage.”

This small native tree grows wild in many of Delaware woodlands. As you buzz down I-95, check out the large stand of redbuds by the roadside, just south of Wilmington. For a more leisurely setting to enjoy redbud blooms, head to the University of Delaware Botanic Gardens. You can find flowering redbuds there, and a whole lot more.

“In bloom, or soon to bloom, are a number of natives, including silverbells, fothergilla, serviceberry, redbud, dogwood and pawpaw,” says Claudia Bradley, nursery coordinator for the UD Botanic Gardens.

She is particularly fond of fothergilla and tends to it not only in UD’s gardens but also in her own home garden. “I always look forward to seeing the fothergilla in flower,” says Bradley. “I like its bottlebrush white flowers now and, then, in fall, its awesome red color.”

Mt. Cuba Center is another great place to check out spring blooms, especially since it’s expanding its public hours. Starting April 19, you won’t need a reservation to visit on Fridays and Saturdays, from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. (From May 3 to July 26, the gardens will stay open until 7 p.m. on Fridays.)  Guided tours will still be available by reservation on other days and times.

Chilly weather delayed some of the blooms at Mt. Cuba, just as it as at Winterthur and other area gardens. But now that it has warmed up, native spring ephemerals will soon emerge in Mt. Cuba’s woodlands, reports Jeanne Frett, a research horticulturist at the center. Look for flowering liverleaf, trout lily, bloodroot, rue-anemone, cut-leaf toothwort and Dutchman’s breeches.

Trees and shrubs also are starting to bloom at Mt. Cuba. If you’d like some April flowering shrubs in your own yard, Frett suggests American bladdernut and spicebush.

“Both of these are found locally in the woodlands and at Mt. Cuba Center,” says Frett. “They’re very appropriate choices for creating your own naturalistic gardens using locally native species.”

Spicebush is one of Delaware’s most common native shrubs. On the female plants, small clusters of yellow flowers appear now, and later develop into red fruit. American bladdernut isn’t the most beautiful April bloomer but it could be the most interesting.

“More of a curiosity than a specimen shrub, the American bladdernut has bell-shaped flowers that develop into three-lobed, inflated, brown papery capsules later in the season,” says Frett.

Article by Margo McDonough

Photo by Danielle Quigley

This article can also be viewed on UDaily.

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