Beekeeping 101

December 17, 2012 under CANR News, Cooperative Extension, Events

Dr. Deborah Delaney, assistant professor and extension specialist, will be a presenter at a “Beekeeping 101″ workshop offered on Saturday, January 12 from 8am-4pm at Delaware State University’s Research and Outreach Center in Smyrna, Delaware.

Sponsored by the Delaware Beekeepers Association and Delaware State University’s Small Farms Program, this one-day course is a great intensive learning opportunity for anyone interested in the art and science of beekeeping. For more information or to register, contact Bill Leitzinger at e-mail – DEBeekeepers@gmail.com.

The cost for the workshop is $50 and includes lunch, a one year membership in the Delaware Beekeepers Association (a $20 value), handouts for each topic covered, and the popular beginning beekeeping book “The Backyard Beekeeper” by Kim Flottum, editor of Bee Culture magazine (list price $24.99). Married couples/life partners are welcome to both attend – and only pay for one person. (Only one book will be given out per family/couple who attend.)

Other workshop presenters include:

  • Bill Leitzinger, President, Delaware Beekeepers Association
  • Robert Mitchell, State Apiarist, Delaware Department of Agriculture
  • David Carter, Backyard Beekeeper & Experienced in Woodworking

AGENDA

8:00      Registration & Networking – Muffins, donuts, fruit, coffee, tea, juice, etc…

8:30      “Why Beekeeping is a Great Hobby”

8:45      “Essential Beekeeping Equipment”

9:45       BREAK

10:00    “Hive Management in the First Year of Beekeeping”

10:45    “Flowering Plants Important to Honey Bees”

11:30    “Inspecting, Feeding, & Placement of Your New Hives”

12:00    Lunch – sandwiches, fruit, dessert, & drinks provided

12:45    “The Secret Life of Honey Bees”

1:45      “Identifying Honey Bee Diseases & Pests”

2:30      BREAK

2:45      “Integrated Pest Management”

3:30      “Ask the Beekeeping Experts” – Panel of Beekeeping Experts

4:00      ADJOURN

DIRECTIONS: From Route 1 – Get off at the South Smyrna Exit. Turn right onto Rt. 13 North. At the next light, turn right onto Smyrna-Leipsic Road. Go ½ mile, see sign on right for Delaware State University – Smyrna Research & Outreach Center. (look for yellow “BEE MEETING” signs). The snow date is Saturday, January 19th.

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UD researcher offers the buzz on why bees, wasps are busy in autumn

October 9, 2012 under CANR News, Cooperative Extension

You buy a cider doughnut at the apple orchard and they quickly find you. Your kid opens a sports drink at the soccer field and they show up. You dine on the deck on a warm afternoon and sure enough, there they are.

This time of year, bees and wasps seem to be everywhere. Why won’t they buzz off?

University of Delaware bee researcher Debbie Delaney can’t clear the bees and wasps from your backyard barbecue but she can shed some light on why these insects are busy in autumn. Given how beneficial these species are to humans (yes, wasps, too) she hopes people will become more tolerant of their activity this time of year.

“Bees aren’t trying to sting you or ruin your outdoor fun,” says Delaney, assistant professor of entomology and wildlife ecology in the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources. “It’s just that autumn is a particularly important time for honeybees and native bees as they get ready for winter.”

In late summer and fall, worker bees labor long hours, collecting enough nectar to feed and maintain the colony throughout the winter. Bees visit flowers to obtain carbohydrates (nectar) and protein (found in the pollen).  Late-blooming flowers that feed the bees include asters, chrysanthemums, goldenrod and Russian sage.

“As the days shorten, the bees know it’s time to go into this food-gathering mode,” says Delaney. “If supplies run low during the winter, beekeepers can feed bees various sugary concoctions — for example, sugar syrup, corn syrup or granulated sugar in the form of sugar boards. But wild bees are out of luck in this regard. Their colonies may not survive if they didn’t make adequate preparations.”

For the most part, bees hunker down and stay in the hives all winter. On unseasonably warm winter days, they will come out to remove waste from their abdomens and the hive, clean themselves, and forage. Of course, there isn’t much to forage in the dead of winter so provisions gathered in fall are critical to the success of the hive.

While bees are busy getting ready for the season ahead, wasps are taking advantage of a brief, well-deserved retirement.

“In late summer and fall, when the queen wasp stops laying eggs, the worker wasps change their food-gathering strategy,” says Delaney. “Earlier in the season, the wasps were busy collecting insects – a protein source – for the colony’s young. But now they’re intent on getting sweets and carbohydrates for their own consumption.”

Adult wasps have just a few weeks to binge on carbohydrates before they die off at the first hard frost. They deserve some fun, considering the good that they do.

“I don’t think many people realize that wasps are beneficial insects,” says Delaney. “But they are true carnivores and engage in a lot of insect collecting earlier in the season. They are predators of a number of pest insects, including mosquitoes, flies and beetle larvae.”

Wasps that do enjoy a longer lifespan are the newly mated gynes (aka, queens). They over winter alone, awaiting the first signs of spring, which signals them to start the creation of their own nest.

Compared to wasps, there’s much more awareness of the critical role that bees play to human life. If honeybees disappeared, food would be scarce, as colonies stopped pollinating fruit, nut and vegetable crops. And if all 20,000-plus species of bees in the world were to disappear, the results could be catastrophic.

Here in Delaware, residents can thank honeybees and native bees for pollinating a cornucopia of crops, including apples, asparagus, blueberries, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, cantaloupe, cucumber, eggplant, peaches, pears, peppers, pumpkins, strawberries, tomatoes, watermelon and more, notes Delaney.

Plus, the honeybees share their honey with us, too. Delaney and her students pulled honey from the UD Apiary in late July and August and it’s now for sale for at the UDairy Creamery. This is the second season that UD honey has been available to the public.

Branded with the moniker “Dare to Bee,” the first harvest was golden in color and had a light taste, which reflects the fact that the bees obtained a lot of pollen and nectar from a stand of black locust trees near the apiary. The second harvest is darker in color and has a caramel flavor representing a blend of late season native and introduced species such as asters and knotweeds.

“Dare to Bee” honey sold out fast last autumn. If you’d like to try it, buzz on over to the UDairy Creamery soon. It’s located behind Townsend Hall on the university’s Newark campus. For store hours and more info, go to the website.

Article by Margo McDonough

Photo by Danielle Quigley

This article can also be viewed on UDaily.

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Happy National Pollinator Week

June 21, 2011 under CANR News

Debbie Delaney looked like she was feeling the heat on a recent 95-degree day at the University of Delaware apiary, despite the shade of black walnut and tulip poplar trees. It was hard to tell how the 22 hives of honeybees – some two million bees in all – were handling the steamy weather.

But Delaney, an assistant professor of entomology and wildlife ecology in the College of Agricultural and Natural Resources, had no worries. “Bees are much better at thermoregulation than humans are,” says Delaney. “Honeybees maintain strict temperature control. The colony always stays between 89 and 92 degrees, ideal for a honeybee, and the humidity never varies more than 5 percent. Worker bees flap their wings to cool the air and some periodically leave the hive to reduce the effects of body heat.”

Delaney has been researching bees for years but continues to be amazed at their abilities, including staying comfortable in the heat while we wilt. She’d like to see bees get a bit more respect — if not the all-out enthusiasm she displays.

She’ll have an opportunity to spread the word about bees this week, which marks National Pollinator Week. The event recognizes not only bees but all pollinators – birds, butterflies, bats and beetles. One in every three bites of food humans consume has been made possible by one of these pollinators.

Pollinator Partnership, a nonprofit organization that sponsors the week, calls bees the primary pollinator of most plants. Delaney agrees, with a slight qualification.

“Bees are definitely the most important pollinator in our state in terms of the numbers and the importance of the crops they pollinate,” she says. “But bats also are important in a different way. Bat-pollinated flowers generally open at night and have distinct floral tube sizes and shapes that can accommodate bats.  So bats are very important pollinators for a certain subset of plants.”

Even while giving bats their due, Delaney rattles off the Delaware crops that bees do pollinate: apples, asparagus, blueberries, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, cantaloupe, cucumber, eggplant, honeydew melon, nectarines, peaches, pears, peppers, pumpkins, okra, onion, squash, strawberries, tomatoes and watermelon. She’s quite sure she has missed a few. After all, bees pollinate more than 90 crops in North America.

Non-native honeybees are responsible for some of this pollination. But Delaware’s native bees deserve credit, too.

There are at least 200 native bees in the state, according to the state Department of Agriculture, which recently completed a five-year study of native bees. “Recent research has shown that native bees can play a major role in pollinating agricultural crops,” notes Delaney. “Native bees often will visit flowers in wet or cold weather when honeybees don’t want to come out of their hives. And farmers who use managed honeybees will see increased yields when native bees interact with the crops.”

Wild honeybees – descendants of honeybees introduced by European colonists – also play a role in agricultural pollination. Research on these feral bees may even help combat colony collapse disorder, a poorly understood syndrome that can wipe out entire hives of managed honeybees.

The Feral Bee Project, sponsored by North Carolina State University, asks beekeepers and “citizen scientists” to log the location of wild honeybee hives at the Save the Hives website.

“Colony collapse disorder in domestic honeybees continues to be a major concern,” says Delaney. “We still don’t know the cause or causes of this syndrome. But the Feral Bee Project may give us a better understanding of the role that natural resistance plays in fighting disease or environmental stress, as well as a better understanding of genetic components that contribute to ‘survivor stock.’”

Learn more

To find out more about pollinators and National Pollinator Week, go to the Pollinator Partnership website.

The Brandywine Zoo will be hosting “Pollinator Power” on June 25, a family friendly event from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.

Article by Margo McDonough

Photos by Danielle Quigley

This article can also be viewed online on UDaily by clicking here.

 

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