Tag Archives: class of 2013

Symposium 2013: One Month Away!

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The Fern Floor at the Longwood Gardens Conservatory

Photography: Laurie Metzger

The Longwood Graduate Program’s Annual Symposium, Shifting Landscapes: Cultivating Connections with a Broader Community, is a little less than a month away!  If you are on the fence about attending, let me paint you a picture…

When you arrive at Longwood Gardens Visitor’s Center, you are greeted by the Graduate Students and Longwood’s friendly staff.  Beyond the glass doors, the garden steals your gaze, beckoning you into the crisp early spring morning. This is a special time in the garden.  The fresh air invigorates you.  Just as you begin admiring the spring bulbs, you catch a glimpse of the magnificent conservatory on the hill.

The scent of orchids intermingled with the aroma of fresh brewed coffee lead you to Longwood’s historic ballroom where your day of cultivating connections begins.  You’re surrounded by stunning beauty and thought provoking conversation.

This year’s Symposium boasts fresh perspectives and a delicious menu.  A Bistro style lunch will feature a variety of offerings from soups and salads to risotto cakes and vegetable dumplings.  Fine meats and savory vegetarian options will leave no guest unsatisfied.  Lunch will be held on the elegant Patio of Oranges with lots of opportunity for conversation.

This year’s Symposium will make use of advanced technology forums such as Twitter in addition to recognizable tools like chalk boards to help us creatively answer questions posed by our speakers. The multi-leveled discussion will spark imaginations and generate opportunities for growth in our public gardens.  Interacting with on-line viewers in addition to those in attendance, will allow for collaboration between States and Nations!

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The Flower Walk at Longwood Gardens

The day will finish with optional behind-the-scenes tours of various aspects of Longwood Gardens in addition to an optional, limited seating session with speaker, Louise Chawla.  Finish your day at the Symposium by prolonging your exploration and experience Longwood Gardens: Beyond the Garden Gates.

Please join us on March 15th 2013 for The Longwood Graduate Program’s Annual Symposium.  Shifting Landscapes: Cultivating Connections with a Broader Community. To register, click here. See you there!

 

Airlie Gardens

August 24, 2012 – Airlie Gardens, NC
(written by Quill Teal-Sullivan, photographs by Wonsoon Park)

The final stop on our North American Experience was Airlie Gardens, a lovely display garden nestled amongst fresh water ponds and ancient live oaks at the edge of Wilmington, North Carolina. Airlie has a long history of public visitation, having first opened its doors to public tours over 100 years ago as the private estate of the Pembroke Jones family. In 1999, Airlie officially became a public garden when the owners partnered with the Coastal Land Trust and sold the 67-acre garden to New Hanover County.

Visitor Center at the Airlie Gardens

Our host for the day was former Longwood employee Jim McDaniel, who serves as the Director of Parks, Gardens, and Senior Resources for New Hanover County. When Jim was hired ten years ago, Airlie was on the brink of collapse after a brutal period of financial hardship under prior leadership. Over cups of strong Wilmington coffee, we listened to Jim recount the trials and triumphs of fighting for Airlie’s survival, and the victory of bringing the garden to full financial sustainability.

Director Jim McDaniel

Jim and his dedicated staff have integrated contemporary new gardens, facilities, and programs into a garden that drips with Southern history and magic.  One new addition to the garden is the Minnie Evan’s Bottle Chapel, dedicated to the popular African American folk artist who served as Airlie’s gatekeeper when it was a private estate. The Bottle Chapel is constructed of concrete and salvaged glass bottles, evoking the colors of sea glass and the spirit of a stained-glass window. A shrine composed of Aunt Jemima syrup bottles inside the Chapel is a tribute to Minnie’s devotion to the church, and a mark of the artist’s clever use of the materials.

Dr. Lyons taking photos of the Minnie Evan’s Bottle Chapel

Yet another new addition to the garden is a large butterfly house that was constructed using a prefabricated metal gazebo-like structure, enhanced according to USDA butterfly house standards, including mesh siding and roofing just right for domestic butterflies. The entire project from start to finish (including plantings), cost $200K, a figure that Jim estimated as being far less than many comparable butterfly houses on the market.

Butterfly House

But the crown jewel of the Airlie Gardens is far from new. The Airlie Oak, a 468-year-old live oak (Quercus virginiana) took our breath away. Its branches twist and turn towards the sky, festooned with Spanish moss as though hundreds of bearded old elves are swinging up-side-down from every limb. The Airlie Oak is North Carolina’s State Champion, making its neighboring oaks that are from 200 to 300 years of age, look juvenile. This ancient oak is insured for $1 million.

live oak (Quercus virginiana)

Our tour ended with a visit to the entry gate, surrounded by plantings designed by Longwood Graduate alumnus Rodney Eason. Then off we went to a fish-fried dinner along the sandy beaches of Cape Fear. And alas, this brings our North American Experience to an end. We have visited a diverse mix of gardens, each unique in its mission and approach serving its audience, collections, and greater community. Goodbye North Carolina, and thank you for your hospitality.

Beautiful walkway

Juniper Level Botanical Garden at Plant Delights Nursery

August 23, 2012 – Plants Delights Nursery, NC
(written by Dottie Miles, photographs by Quill Teal-Sullivan)

Hidden within a hedge of ‘Nellie Stevens’ holly and other “spiny” plant material, Plant Delights Nursery at Juniper Level Botanic Gardens is an eclectic collection of diverse plants gathered from near and far.  Passionate founder, Tony Avent, describes it as a research and botanical garden funded by a plant nursery operation with a mission, “to discover, study, select, preserve, and make available new hardy perennial plants for both shade gardens and sun gardens around the world.”

Our host, Tony Avent

Looking for non-invasive plants that can be hardy in the North Carolina climate, Avent is the mythbuster of horticulture, noting, “where you find it in the wild is not necessarily where it grows best.”  The garden is a testament to his pursuit to learn more about his collection, as he designs planting beds for both pleasure and research.

Martin examining a South African species

Within his garden, Avent has built an organic series of trails inviting one to wander, immerse and delight in the unique collection.  Containing whimsical garden elements and a smart irrigation and filtration system, the collection and juxtaposition ofplantings is astounding. Avent explains, “you don’t learn something new by duplicating what you already know,” and then goes on to highlight an experience of plant discovery that challenges known research and historical data.

Rain Lillies

To date, his collection has massed to 19,836 accessions that have been assembled through plant exploration in the U.S. and abroad. Avent and his associates have been on more than 70 collection trips during which they gathered over 1000 different ferns, the largest Aspidistra collection worldwide, an Amorphophallus collection that is the third largest in the country, rain lilies, agave, trillium, and the list goes on.

Beautiful agaves

To further plant propagation and research efforts, Avent has recently acquired neighboring land to expand operations; he anticipates opening to the public 7 days a week in the next few years.  Until then, Juniper Level Botanic Gardens is open eight weekends a year.

Cactus bloom

All in all, Avent may just be the most unique part of his eclectic garden.  To those who know him and his passion for plants, it should come to no surprise that he seems to find extreme enjoyment in sharing his garden with others.  The knowledge and insight he shared about his collection was a special treat and we all walked away wanting more than one of his plants.

Group shot with Tony Avent

North Carolina Botanical Garden

August 22, 2012 – North Carolina Botanical Garden, NC
(written by Wonsoon Park, photographs by Nate Tschaenn)

It was an overcast day with a little bit of drizzle when we were greeted by Johnny Randall and Dan Stern at the entrance of the North Carolina Botanical Garden (NCBG). Dr. Randall is the director of Conservation Programs, and Stern, a former LGP Fellow (class of 2010) is currently the manager of the Sentinel Plant Network. The NCBG is operated by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the history of the Garden dates back to 1903 when William Chambers Coker, the University’s first professor of botany, began planting a teaching collection of trees and shrubs on the central campus. The Botanical Garden Foundation was founded in 1966, and now NCBG covers about 1,000 acres.

Director Johnny Randall and former fellow Dan Stern touring the group through the gardens.

Known as a “Conservation Garden,” the NCBG has very clear mission, which is to inspire understanding, appreciation, and conservation of plants in gardens and natural areas. We looked around the main visitor site of the NCBG, which is comprised of the Display Gardens and Education Center. Walking along the boardwalk through the Costal Plain Habitat Garden, Dr. Randall explained that this garden is a real piece of an ecosystem that literally has been moved from the actual coastal plain area. This habitat garden is burned once in a year, normally between January and February, to revitalize those fire-adapted plants in the same way as the original habitat.

Coastal Plain Habitat Garden

As a founding institution of the Center for Plant Conservation (CPC), the NCBG has been actively involved in ex-situ conservation conducting many important projects, such as their seed bank program, as well as rare plant reintroduction program. Using a series of raised beds, the Native Water Gardens and Carnivorous Plant Collection show that the North Carolina is a hotbed of carnivorous plants, including pitcher plants, sundews, and butterworts.

A pitcher plant and Venus flytrap in the Carnivorous Garden.

The new Education Center was dedicated in 2009, and it’s the state’s first public museum and outreach center to earn LEED platinum status. This facility features photovoltaic panels, geothermal wells, rainwater cisterns, storm-water retention, clerestory windows for natural lighting, and many others. Surprisingly, all the funds for this project were donated by nearly 600 individual donors.

Metal cisterns outside the Education Center collect rainwater and the paths are lined with recycled concrete from sidewalks.

We headed up to the Coker Arboretum at the UNC campus, which is two miles away from NCBG. Margo MacIntyre, the Curator of the Arboretum guided us throughout the 5 acres of secured area. The Arboretum features Southeastern American native woody plants as well as Southeastern Asian native plants for comparison.

Group shot at the Coker Arboretum

Finally, Dan Stern gave us a short history about the Wisteria Arbor, which was completely rebuilt in 1997 with five types of native climbers to demonstrate the examples of what we should plants and what not. We learned a lot about how to put conservation efforts into botanical garden settings, and really appreciated the hospitality of the staff today.

This iconic tunnel at North Carolina University, formerly planted with invasive Japanese wisteria, was replanted with several native vines including the native wisteria, Wisteria frutescens.

The JC Raulston Arboretum

August 23, 2012 – The JC Raulston Arboretum, NC
(written by Martin Smit, photographs by Sara Levin Stevenson)

The JC Raulston Arboretum, one of our own director’s former stomping grounds, was our first stop in Raleigh.  The history of the Arboretum dates back to 1976 when Dr. J.C. Raulston initiated the first steps to develop the site as an arboretum for the Department of Horticultural Science at NC State University.  The Arboretum is managed under the Department of Horticultural Science and focuses particularly on supporting research, extension and teaching. Beside these crucial functions within the University, the Arboretum also has become a popular public green space and an important educational facility, especially for the local community.

Lath House

Lath House

Upon arrival we were warmly received by Dr. John Dole who took some time out of his busy schedule as Department Head to talk to us about the importance of the Arboretum. He emphasized not only the role within the Department of Horticultural Science but also within the local community.

Pot on the A.E. Finley foundation Rooftop Terrace

Pot on the A.E. Finley Foundation Rooftop Terrace

Mark Weathington, the current Assistant Director and Curator of Collections, discussed the master plan that was drawn up in 2007 by skilled landscape design professionals who volunteered their time and services to Arboretum.  He also pointed out several new projects that formed part of the master plan as he was touring Fellows through the Arboretum. Mark also explained how the Arboretum has slowly transformed from an entity being fully funded but the Department of Horticulture Science to receiving only about thirty percent of its funding from the Department. Various weird and wonderful plants were also pointed out to the Fellows and Mark explained how trialing new plants is still one of the key functions of the Arboretum.  On average, more than a thousand accessions are added to the collections every year, which is a staggering number for such a relatively small arboretum.

Dr. Robert Lyons

Dr. Robert Lyons

Our very own Dr. Robert Lyons, also gave his insight into the fundraising and completion of the Ruby C. McSwain Education Center, which he oversaw during his tenure as Director at the Arboretum from 1999 through 2004.

Fellows, Nate Tschaenn and Abby Johnson

Fellows, Nate Tschaenn and Abby Johnson

Our visit concluded with lunch and as usual it was put to good use as chance to interact with staff and volunteers in the manicured garden of one of the board members, Sylvia Redwine. During our visit we were pleased to experience the passion that both volunteers and staff had for the Arboretum, which bodes well for the future.

Fellows with staff and volunteers in the garden of board member Sylvia Redwine

Fellows with staff and volunteers in the garden of board member Sylvia Redwine

High Point University Arboretum and Gardens

August 21, 2012 – High Point University, NC
(written by Robert E. Lyons, photographs by Dottie Miles)

High Point University (HPU) is a small liberal arts college not too far from Raleigh and Greensboro, North Carolina.  Although I had never visited the HPU campus, I sure had no idea about its plant collections.  So, when Jon Roethling, a friend and fellow plantsman, told me of the University’s plans to develop their campus into a first class arboretum and garden complex, my interest was more than piqued!

Our group met Jon just inside the gated entry to HPU where he was ready to showcase all the newest developments on this rapidly growing campus. At first, it was challenging to see through the obvious avalanche of new construction, such as brand new buildings, larger than life water features, and impressive landscape structures.  Yet, Jon skillfully blended them all with expert discourse related to the new and existing plant materials, all intertwined with kudos to the HPU President, Nido Qubein, and his wife for their vision.

Within Jon’s 2-year tenure as a direct report to the Director of Facilities, he has overseen over 320 acres of campus property and its plants. He reviews new plant choice specifications with other HPU personnel with an eye towards diversity, uniqueness and even fragrance.  No common plant palette under Jon’s watch.  Students, staff, and faculty will be fortunate to enjoy the likes of Edgeworthia, hardy palms, and gardenias on their way to work and class.

High Point University does not have an undergraduate program in horticulture.  However, Jon wants to engage students as much as possible in the understanding of the campus plantings, as well as instill an interest and appreciation for plants, regardless of their major. I’m positive that the campus’ first LEED certified building (School of Education) and designation as a Tree Campus USA will only strengthen his attempt to make an impact on all HPU students.  Of course, one of Jon’s biggest challenges is directly related to the audience he serves…specifically, how to actually schedule the needed planting, landscape repairs, and plant maintenance without interfering with the busy activities found anywhere, anytime, throughout HPU.  Jon uses GIS to map the plant collections, he has labeled them for identification, and has integrated this information within the public information kiosks found within the student center.

At the end of the day, we contemplated all that Jon has done and agreed that High Point University would soon be a public horticulture force to be reckoned with thanks to his efforts.  Well done!

Sarah P. Duke Gardens

August 22, 2012 – Sarah P. Duke Gardens, NC
(written by Sara Levin Stevenson, photographs by Abby Johnson)

The Fellows spent Wednesday morning visiting the Sarah P. Duke Gardens, located on 55 acres in the center of the Duke University campus.

Entrance of the Sarah P. Duke Gardens

Upon our arrival, the Director of the Gardens and LGP alumnus, Bill LeFevre, met us.  Bill and part of the Sarah P. Duke Gardens team took time to help us get to know the gardens and its various programs and events.  Our meeting took place in the Doris Duke Center, a focal point in the grand entryway experience.  We then toured the grounds with some of the knowledgeable staff.

White Garden

A few of the tour highlights included the Terrace Garden, H.L. Blomquist Garden, and the Discovery Garden.  The Terrace Garden is located in the heart of the historic area.  It is a vibrant collection of perennials that sit in large rock walls made of a rich blue Duke stone, from a local quarry.  The historic area is a popular spot for weddings and events, especially among Duke University alumni.

Terrace Garden

The H. L. Blomquist Garden of Native Plants focuses on conservation and is the most heavily interpreted area of the gardens.  Its design and messaging encourage visitors to embrace native plantings and learn conservation techniques.  Stephan Bloodworth, the curator of this garden, describes it as an education tool for applied plant conservation and he aims to create an interpretive experience that leaves a lasting impression on visitors.

Sign in the Blomquist Garden of Native Plants

The newest garden is the Discovery Garden, a farm education area.  This garden is packed with interesting details, including a vegetable garden, tobacco barn-turned education center, beehives, chickens, fruit orchard, bio-swale, rain garden, herb garden, composting station, and storytelling area.  It was designed for with the public, children, and families in mind with an emphasis on presenting ideas that would be easy for a visitor to replicate at home. The Discovery Garden is a prototype site for the Sustainable Sites Initiative so various techniques were incorporated in the building process that promoted sustainability, such as using salvaged materials.

Charlotte Brody Discovery Garden

The Sarah P. Duke Gardens has over 300,000 visitors every year and is a well-loved and often visited institution on the Duke University campus.  It attracts student groups and classes and the local community through programs such as an annual film and concert series.

Japanese Garden

We enjoyed our visit to this vibrant garden and are grateful to our hosts for their hospitality!

Paul J. Ciener Botanical Garden

August 21, 2012 – Paul J. Ciener Botanical Garden
(written by Abby Johnson, photographs by Martin Smit)

A burgeoning jewel on historic Main Street, in Kernersville, North Carolina, engages the eyes of passersby with a bright, bold and outstanding curb appeal. That very engaging entrance entices passersby to become visitors. Walking distance from downtown Kernersville grows the embodiment of the mission of Paul J Ciener, “a place of unique beauty, seeking to inspire, enlighten and connect people of all ages to world of plants, gardening and horticulture. ”

Fellow meet staff and founders

The legacy of Mr. Ciener, businessman and plant aficionado, is being fulfilled by his sons David and Greg Ciener. Armed with a master plan, along with the leadership of a strategic board and passionate staff, the Paul J. Ciener Botanic Garden has become reality. In April of 2011, this Garden officially opened its doors to the public with a small but mighty staff. This public garden is making great strides to become the next travel destination in the region. Advance planning for both the site and its interpretation, has guided the staff in the development of the seven acre property. This is key for both informed decision-making and effective communication strategies. Everyone in our visiting group believed that Paul J. Ciener Botanic Garden is headed in the right direction.

Curb your enthusiasm

This garden has some intriguing modern touches as well as traditional features, all with a nod to their Moravian architectural town heritage. The newly constructed main building, or carriage house, reflects the days of old. Equipped with state of the art technology and attractive accommodations for any speaker, this site for hosting events has been a hit within the community. What an added bonus to the town of Kernersville and the greater Triad to gain a botanic garden, a venue for weddings and other corporate events. Additionally, the carriage house has classrooms, administrative offices and a gift shop.

Kitchen garden

The garden collections are in tune with the desires of the garden’s namesake Paul J. Ciener. The kitchen garden, along the perimeter of the carriage house, is bursting with flavor and fragrance. As a point of access as well as education, patrons can have the awesome experience of planting and harvesting the vegetables and herbs grown onsite. The Pattern Garden reflects traditional gardens in the southern U.S. region with a range of plant life, complete with Chapel Hill grit for footpaths. On display during our visit are the wild wonders of summer.

Exploring the garden

Notable features of the entire garden site are the Pattern Garden and Parking Lot Garden. Yes! The parking lot was constructed with permeable pavement and the living curbs are phenomenal since they host a myriad of hens and chicks, also called Sempervivum species.

Exploring wooded area yet to be developed with curator Adrienne Roethling

Of the many guest lecturers and artist who visit the garden, Paul J. Ciener Botanic Garden has had the great fortune of working with the likes of industry greats, such as Chip Callaway and Mark Peters. Our own Dr. Robert Lyons is an upcoming guest lecturer. It was clear following our visit, that it wouldn’t be difficult to encourage anyone to visit this burgeoning jewel of Kernersville.

Chip Callaway talking to fellows

Cibodas Botanical Garden and Taman Bunga Nusantara

(written by Wonsoon Park, photographs by Abby Johnson)

How nice it has been for us to finally meet the people who we have been longing to meet while preparing for this trip. Eka was the one of those people that we have wanted to meet. Eka, who is in charge of research in Cibodas Botanical Garden, greeted us with a very genuine smile and happily guided us into the gardens. The Cibodas Botanical Garden is one of seven bioregions in Indonesia designated by UNESCO as a world heritage site as well as one of four national botanical gardens in Indonesia along with the Bogor, Bali, and Purwodadi botanical gardens. It’s located in Mount Pangrango adjacent to Mt. Gede-Pangrango National Park.

Group shot with director and research staff

We met the staff of Cibodas and had a meeting that included a presentation from the director, Dr. Didik Widyatmoko who has worked in the field of horticulture for twenty-four years as an endemic plant expert and held many different positions among a diverse array of Indonesian organizations. There are twenty-two research staff members who have a wide variety of specialties including taxonomy, medicinal plants, rhododendrons, and plant breeding and almost 200 workers in the garden. The garden was established in 1852 and focuses mainly on conservation, research, environmental education, and tourism.

Eka touring us through the orchid house

The eighty-five hectare garden is uniquely positioned because a natural preserved area surrounds it, which is important for their plant conservation. The garden has almost 500,000 visitors a year. Some of the research projects at the garden include carbon stock and biomass assessment, restoration and rehabilitation, bryophyte conservation, exploration and research of Sumatran montane forests, and ecological studies and forest dynamics. They also collaborate with BGCI on environmental education programs and teacher training.

Tree fern collection

After our meeting, we went out to explore the gardens. The most impressive garden was the bryophytes garden, which has 100 species growing very well under the perfect weather conditions for them. Beside the garden the Amorphophallus titanum plants, which have magnificent flowers every 4 years or so, each showed their single individual leaf that appeared as a big tree-like stem emerging from the ground. We were able to see the nursery where Indonesian plants that are collected on the yearly plant expeditions are held and the nurseries growing indigenous orchids and Nepenthes. There was also a cherry tree garden, rhododendron garden, begonia garden, medicinal plant garden, and cactus garden. The fern collection was well organized and included various tree ferns, the stems of which are sometimes used for orchid growing material. The Chinese also collect the scales of the fronds for medicinal purpose. After we saw the oldest tree in the garden planted in 1860, it started to rain. We kept touting to see the rest of Gardens and it looked even more special under the heavy tropical rain.

Bryophyte garden

Amorphophallus titanum

Amorphophallus titanum

The next destination, Taman Bunga Nusantara was a totally different world. It had a water garden, French garden, rose garden, American garden, Balinese garden, and Japanese garden on the thirty-five hectare property managed by 150 gardeners. The garden was established in 1995 and shows relatively new and more stylish garden display. The Balinese garden and maze garden were the highlights of the trip since they were full of extraordinary plants that we have never seen before and made us feel like we were in a more exotic atmosphere.

One of the many whimsical displays at Taman Bunga Nusantara

Mt. Gede-Pangrango National Park

(written by Tom Brightman, photographs by Martin Smit and Tom Brightman)

Today was a study in contrasts—between the stark reminders of the burgeoning Indonesian population (now 14 million strong in the Jakarta area), the steep slope deforestation for tea plantations, and the lush beauty and biodiversity of the sub-montane rainforest on the slopes of volcanic Mount Pangrango.

Tea plantations

Our driver skillfully maneuvered us up the narrow, serpentine, lorry and motorbike-choked road from the city of Bogor, through a profusion of roadside vegetable and fruit stands (life is not complete without enjoying the sweet and sour nirvana of a fresh-picked mangosteen) and satay purveyors. We drove past the lower slopes of Mount Pangrango that are covered in thousands of hectares of tea plantations, orderly and lovely, but devoid of their virgin rainforest cover.  As we approached the Cibodas Botanic Garden, our point of embarkation for our rainforest trek, both sides of the road were filled with small, local plant nurseries boasting healthy inventories of every tropical plant imaginable.  We met Eka Iskandar, a researcher from Cibodas, who turned us over to our guide for the hike, Ken.

Typical fruit stand

Gede Pangrango Park consists of a landscape dominated by twin volcanoes: Mt. Gede at 9,704 ft above sea level and Mt. Pangrango topping out at 9,904 ft. above sea level.  The mountains’ slopes are very steep and are cut into by rapidly flowing streams that carve long ridges and deep valleys.  To quote the official park guide, “Pangrango evokes esthetic feelings of what a graceful volcanic cone should look like and, reflecting its tranquil appearance, is classed as extinct.  On the other hand, Gede is a very active volcano. Currently deceptively quiet, viewed over time Mt. Gede is one of the most active volcanoes on the island of Java.”  Given the recent earthquake activity in Indonesia, we were glad that both were quiet this day!

Mushrooms

Our hike took us on a steep, rocky trail through thick sub-montane rainforest to our destination of the Cibeureum waterfall. Not one, but three waterfalls are formed by the confluence of the Cibeureum, Cidendeng, and Cikundel rivers.  At over 90 feet tall, the falls crash into the lush surroundings, thrusting a cool mist into the forest below.

Cibeureum waterfall

The forest is full of plants competing for light. The large canopy trees host their own ecology of ferns, orchids, and climbing vines and provide a home to Ebony leaf monkeys, false cajoles lizards (pictured), and many spectacularly gilded butterflies.  Plants of note included Rattan (Plectomia elongate), Arisaema filiforme, and numerous orchids.

Tree fern covered in moss and epiphytes

This level of biodiversity has not gone unnoticed.  The park is one of seven World Biosphere Reserves in Indonesia, as designated by UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere program.  Although just a remnant of the large rainforests that once dominated this part of the world, the Gede-Pandrango forest is impressive nonetheless.

False cajoles lizard