Tag Archives: class of 2014

Electronics Recycling Day Spring 2014

As part of our Environmental Impact initiatives, The Longwood Graduate Program Fellows hold a biannual Electronics Recycling Day to assist our peers in the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Delaware in the proper disposal of their e-waste. photo 2-1

Thoughts of spring-cleaning must have been running through the collective campus-mind because over 200 unique items were brought in for recycling during the course of the three-hour event. Older model printers and obsolete computer towers continued to be the most donated items, while we saw a sharp decline in the number of CRT television sets.

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As an added incentive, The University of Delaware Botanic Gardens donated heirloom tomato seedlings to be distributed to all Electronics Recycling Day participants.

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All electronic equipment was brought to the UD recycling center, with the exception of cellular phones, which were donated to the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence’s Donate A Phone program.

NAX addendum

Top 10 things that did not make it in our garden visit blog posts:

10. The North End, Boston. The Fellows and Ed headed into Boston on Wednesday evening for dinner in the old Italian section of the city. It was restaurant week and the neighborhood was bustling. We happened upon a beautifully landscaped hotel along the waterfront and paused for a group photo. After a delicious Italian dinner in the loudest restaurant I’ve ever been in, we capped off the evening with cannoli and gelato.

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Cannoli from Mike’s in the North End.

9. Petunias. We learned at Arnold Arboretum that Dr. Lyons has a reputed affinity for gaudy petunias. He may or may not have pulled over the van in Boothbay Harbor, Maine, and jumped out to take photos of petunias and sweet potato vines growing at a local garden center.

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Be still, Dr. Lyons’ heart.

8. Lounge singers. They already got a mention in the blog, but they’re worth bringing up again. We were treated to the singing of two different lounge singers during our stay in Maine. The second one was for the memory books, as he serenaded us to the likes of Andrew Lloyd Weber, Puccini, Elton John, Willie Nelson, and Plain White Ts. Laurie and Josh, and about 20 septuagenarians, sang along and applauded his talents.

7. Boston streets. Need I say more? Even our GPS couldn’t figure out the streets. Even if we knew where we were going, the traffic lights were totally confusing. You’re sitting at a stop and notice that there are 5 different lights to choose from. 2 are green and 3 are red. Do we stop or go? I think we’re all relieved that we got home in one piece. (Yours truly was banished to the back seat of the van for being a back-seat driver too many times.)

6. New scientific names for plants. At Garden in the Woods, we discovered that the scientific names for plants are being revised again. Cornus florida is now Benthamidia florida. This created some controversy amongst the Fellows and Dr. Lyons and opened to the door to lively discussions in the van.

5. Composite flowers. Ed Broadbent, Head Gardener at Longwood Gardens, accompanied us on our trip as a chaperone. Ed was generally pretty quiet on the trip and not much seemed to phase him. We learned, however, on our last day that one thing that gets him riled up is too many composite flowers in the landscape. Apparently, he and Dr. Lyons argued about composite flowers late at night, then started again in the morning, and then brought it up with us in the van to get our opinions.

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An example of a composite flower

4. This van might tip. As we settled into the 13 passenger van that we would use the whole length of the trip, we were informed by the rental agent that the van could tip if we took turns too quickly. This information set off a running joke that still will not die.

“Dr. Lyons, slow down on this curve, the van might tip!”

“Really? I hadn’t heard that before. Did you say the van could tip over?”

“The rental guy did say to watch out for tippage.”

“I must be careful–the van could tip over.”

3. The amazing staff at all the gardens we visited. We are seriously indebted to Michael, Mark, Joanne, Dave, and Bill who took time out of their busy schedules to show us around and answer all of our questions. We are also grateful to the other executive directors and support staff to met with us as well. They were very candid and offered great insight and advice to us as emerging professionals.

2. Lobster rolls. Or should I say, lobstah rolls? Chunks of succulent lobster, a light dressing, topped by a garnish of greens, all encased in a toasted piece of bread. Simple, yet utterly delicious. A Maine staple, we sampled lobster rolls on two occasions. On the drive from Maine back to Boston, Laurie seriously considered jumping out of the van and running to a roadside stand to get one last roll.

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Lobstah roll at Coastal Maine BG

1. Longwood Graduate Program alumni. Andrew Gapiniski toured us all around Arnold Arboretum. Mark Richardson spent the day with us at Garden in the Woods and Bill Brumback spoke with us in the afternoon. Rodney Eason showed us his work at Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens. It was so great to meet with alumni and see them working in the field.

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Alumus Andrew Gapinski, Dr. Lyons, and Ed Broadbent at Arnold Arboretum

A Coastal Experience

Author: Robert Lyons, Director of the LGP
Photography: Lindsey Kerr and Laurie Metzger

The last leg of our North American Experience journey took us 3.5 hours north of Boston to the charming town of Boothbay Harbor, Maine.  To get there, our primary route out of Boston’s twisted and contorted system of complex intersections and rotaries was a familiar I-95.  Upon our arrival, we checked into the Tugboat Inn, a slightly enigmatic hotel that echoed into the evening with the voices of seasoned, anonymous lounge singers.

After a welcomed night sleep, we boarded the van on a glorious morning saturated by bright sun, clear blue skies, and crisp temperatures that beckoned a sweatshirt or long sleeves.  Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens (CMBG) was our destination and none of us had ever visited, making this destination greatly anticipated.  Upon our arrival, we met up with Executive Director Bill Cullina, who escorted us through their “net zero” LEEDDSC_0299 certified administration and education building.  Fascinating! We ended up in the conference room where Bill and his entourage of key staff introduced us to CMBG’s history, mission, current operations, and future plans. Their property is beautiful, and ironically became available for purchase when a developer abandoned plans for a subdivision and sold the 128 acres to the founders of what was to become CMBG. Today there are 298 total acres, 8000 members, 100,000 visitors/year, 31 permanent employees, 800 volunteers, and an annual operating budget of  $3.2 million.  While open year round, there is an entry fee from April 15 – October, with the remaining months free.

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We couldn’t wait to get outside and Bill readily obliged.  A quick pass through a recently renovated and bustling visitor center led us to the Burpee Kitchen Garden, which was DSC_0302cleverly integrated into the restaurant’s al fresco dining area.  What a concept…many of the same plants that were harvested for the menu grew within arm’s reach.  We were joined by Rodney Eason, former Longwood employee and now Director of Horticulture for CMBG. He and Bill guided us in tag team style through the green spaces and internal pathways, all bordered by artfully designed beds rampant with color or brushed with the diverse green shades of Maine’s natural vegetation. Our tour soon exited the cultivated spaces, including what we all determined was an ingenious approach to a children’s garden, and we found ourselves within a completely forested region dominated by conifers.  We were indeed close to the IMG_0524water and Bill was excited to show us the coastline.  We lingered there to catch our breath and take a group photograph before heading back to conclude our visit.Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens lived up to all the pre-visit hype and landed on our own wish list of places to see again as soon as we can!

 

 

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Mount Auburn Cemetery – NAX day 4

Photography by: Lindsey Kerr

In rural countryside outside of Boston, before Frederick Law Olmsted designed the Emerald Necklace system, a new public space opened that had a profound impact on society. Mount Auburn Cemetery was founded in 1831 by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in response to urban land use problems that were appearing as Boston grew in population.

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Grand vistas at Mt. Auburn Cemetery

One hundred and eighty two years later, on a beautiful, cool summer day, the Longwood Graduate Program visited the 175 acre arboretum and cemetery located in Cambridge, Massachusetts; now a bustling suburb of Boston. As we arrived, we were greeted by DaveDSC_0128 Barnett, President and CEO of the Mount Auburn Cemetery, and, after short introductions, departed for a tour of the grounds. Mount Auburn is still an active cemetery, but one that would defy many preconceived notions one might have about such places. As we toured through the native wetlands, and wooded slopes, we learned how the grounds are laid out to both honor the deceased while also providing a space for the living to contemplate, heal, and find tranquility. The staff is devoted to conservation of the natural landscape, native biota, and historic fabric that all come together to make Mount Auburn the national treasure that it is. We ended our walking tour on top the Washington Tower surrounded by a native wildflower meadow, staring out towards Boston’s skyline in the distance.

Washington Tower

Washington Tower

Native Wildflower Meadow

Native Wildflower Meadow

We then jumped in a van and drove over to the brand-new greenhouse complex and composting facility, where we learned even more about Mount Auburn’s commitment to sustainability. The organization operates six new organic growing greenhouses, which allow them to grow many of the plants for the grounds and floral-shop on premises. They also collect many of the fallen leaves each autumn, along with all horticultural waste, and create their own compost on site to be used throughout the grounds. They have also installed a large underground cistern to collect rainwater runoff from the greenhouse complex that is then used to water the grounds during most of the year. Though the grounds are historic and reserved, the staff has a wonderful forward-looking mentality and a deep commitment towards the future.

Bigelow Chapel

Bigelow Chapel

After viewing the back-of-house facilities, we drove to the Bigelow Chapel for lunch. This Chapel was built in 1840, and was the original space created on the grounds for funerals and memorial services. It is now a multi-purpose building that can be used for funerals, weddings (yes this is true), board meetings, or, in the case of the LGP’s visit, a banquet hall. Dave Barnett and several other key staff members joined us for lunch and to discuss all aspects of the organization. Mount Auburn Cemetery is unique in the sense that as you browse their educational offerings you will notice classes about both horticulture and end-of-life planning. As with many small arboreta, the staff must wear many hats, including cemetery services, a situation that is absent in most public horticulture institutions.

After a wonderful lunch, the Fellows were able to enjoy some more time strolling the grounds and talking with staff members before getting back in the van and heading down the road to Harvard University to view the Glass Flowers. This spectacular collection of botanical specimens, created purely of glass, is mesmerizing as well as educational. It was a wonderful way to end our time in Boston before all piling into the van one more time to travel up to Maine.

Historic Beech

Historic Beech

A visit to Tower Hill Botanic Garden

Photographs by Laurie Metzger

As 9am rolled around on Wednesday, we piled into the van for our third garden visit. Driving away from the morning commuters, we saw city sprawl dwindle to small neighborhoods, neighborhoods become single houses, and finally houses make way for the beautiful Massachusetts countryside. Rolling hills, rocky outcrops, dense woodlands.

Up a winding lane, we reached our destination, Tower Hill Botanic Garden. Walking up from the parking lot, we were immediately distracted by a stunning black tomato growing in the mixed ornamental and vegetable beds outside the Visitor Center. Finally making our way inside, we were greeted by Joann Vieira, Director of Horticulture.

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‘Indigo Rose’ tomatoes

Joann introduced us to Tower Hill, giving a brief history of the property and the Worcester County Horticultural Society, the founding and governing organization, which was first organized in 1840. However, Tower Hill was not established until the 1980s; officially opening in 1986. The botanic garden was conceived and designed with a long-term vision. Tower Hill prominently displays its Master Plan and 50-year vision for the gardens on the wall near the café.

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Arbor with container plants

After walking through the cathedral-like Limonaia, we sat down for a round-table with senior staff, including Executive Director Kathy Abbott. As we nibbled on pastries and drank hot coffee, Tower Hill staff shared with us their insights and challenges of developing a younger institution. Staff was very candid and even shared their thoughts on potential topics for our upcoming Symposium. The hours passed very quickly and we were shocked when someone announced it was time for lunch.

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Inside the Limonaia

We delayed lunch in order to spend time touring through the gardens. We were particularly entranced by the historic apple tree collection. Tower Hill preserves historic apple tree cultivars by growing them on the property and selling scions. Although fire blight and other diseases pose challenges, Tower Hill is nevertheless committed to preserving the apple orchard. Given the go-ahead by Joann, we happily sampled a few early varieties.

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Historic apple variety

After lunch in the on-site Twigs Café with senior staff, we spent more time in the gardens and hiking the paths around the property.  Stepping outside the Orangerie, we encountered the Systematic Garden where  plantings are arranged according to how scientists understand plant evolution. The garden begins with algae in a pool near the building and then stretches out in 26 Italianate style flower beds overflowing with plants massed according to their families and other classifications.

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Flower border

There are several hiking trails on the Tower Hill property. Situated on top of a hill, Tower Hill overlooks the Wachusett Reservoir and capitalizes on the views of the water and rolling hills when designing its system of paths and gardens. We could only imagine how stunningly beautiful the gardens and views must be in late autumn, as the leaves change colors on the hillsides.

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View of the reservoir

We left Tower Hill late in the afternoon. Tired from lots of walking, we were nevertheless energized by the enthusiasm of the Tower Hill staff and the beauty of its landscape. We are excited to see what this young botanic garden becomes in the next few years.

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Statue with roses

Day 2 of NAX at Garden in the Woods

Photographer:  Josh Darfler

On NAX day 2, all LGP second year fellows, chaperone Ed Broadbent and program Director Dr. Lyons went to Garden in the Woods, the operation site of New England Wildflower Society (NEWS), which is located in Framingham, MA. With a warm welcome from Mark Richardson, the Director of Horticulture and LGP alumnus, and horticulturists Kristin DeSouza and Nate McCullin, we started a walking tour of the garden. The NEWS was founded in the early 1900s and is the oldest national conservation organization. The NEWS is a living museum and it showcases more than 1,000 flora varieties of indigenous species to New England.

Mark Richardson touring us in the garden

Mark Richardson touring us in the garden

We met with Debbi Edelstein, Executive Director, and Elizabeth Farnsworth, Interim Director of Education. With the interesting and inspiring conversation going on, we learned that what they are doing is really to promote their mission “ to conserve and promote the region’s native plants to ensure healthy, biologically diverse landscapes.” For education, they offer a variety courses in botany and field biology and also a certificate program in Native Plant Studies. Recently, they launched a brand new website tool called “Go Botany” on their website that aims to help people identify plants by using the full identification key to families, genera, and species. With this tool, over 3,000 New England plants can be identified from a non-botanical perspective, which really encourages informal, self-directed education in botany for science students and amateur botanists.

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Debbi Edelstein then had a very open conversation with us,  ranging from her personal experience on career development, her job as an executive director, how to address a master plan, financial development, and hiring, to name a few topics. Other communications department staff joined us later for with an in-depth discussion on how to remain true to a garden’s mission and how to effectively raise monies.

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Explore the nature in the woods

At 2:30 pm, we met Bill Brumback, the Director of Conservation. He is also an alumnus of LGP from the class 1980, which brought a lot of memories of when he was a fellow. At Garden in the Woods, he has been dedicating his knowledge and effort to plant conservation for more than 30 years. For instance, they run a program called “Plant Conservation Volunteer Program, ” which has been training more than 700 volunteers, many of whom work on plant conservation in up to 6 New England States.  The seed banking project is another impressive effort they are working on, with many successful cases of returning endangered and rare plants to their native area.

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Later bloom Azelea Rhododendron prunifolium

Later on, we explored the plant palette and natural beauty in the woods while enjoying lovely sunshine and summer breeze.  The conversations with all the staff from different departments here will inspire us to think more about the public gardens and the future.

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Silphium perfoliatum

Day 1 of NAX at The Arnold Arboretum

 

(Photography by: Chunying Ling)

Our introduction to the Arnold with Michael Dosmann

Our introduction to the Arnold with Michael Dosmann

We had perfect weather for our first day of NAX at the Arnold Arboretum.  We were greeted upon arrival by Former Fellow and Supervisor of Horticulture, Andrew Gapinski.  A few minutes later we met Michael Dosmann, Curator of Living Collections. Before long, Kyle Port, of Plant Records and Joyce Chery, the Curatorial Fellow joined us. Holding six NAPCC collections (Acer, Carya, Fagus, Stewartia, Tsuga and Syringa) and boasting 15,000 individual accessions, it was clear from the moment we arrived that the Arnold Arboretum is an abundant, dynamic resource..

Tree of Heaven on the path designed for seeing the trees of the world

Tree of Heaven on the path designed for seeing the floras of the world

As the enchanting fragrance of the Katsura tree filled our senses, we listened to the story of America’s first arboretum, established in 1872, at the generous bequest of James Arnold.  A deal was struck between the City of Boston and Harvard University to preserve the Arboretum’s land in perpetuity. Many familiar names are a part of the Arnold’s sensational history, including Liberty Hyde Bailey, J.P. Morgan, Beatrix Farrand and Frederick Law Olmstead. The very path we were walking along was originally designed to allow visitors to “appreciate the floras of the world without even getting out of their carriages…”

Largest Franklinia in the world

Largest Franklinia in the world

 

Although the original mission of the Arnold’s 281 acres was, “…to plant every tree, shrub, vine and herbaceous plant that could grow in Boston…,” the staff has had to make strategic decisions about the collections. To do so, they created a plant Inventory Operations Manual in addition to a Landscape Management plan. (Both are available in their entirety on their website (http://arboretum.harvard.edu/plants/collections-management/.) They have completely digitalized their archive including maps, photographs and correspondence.

 

American Beech predating the Arboretum

American Beech predating the Arboretum

Nestled in the hills are forsythia and roses mixed with incredible tree giants that pre-date the Arboretum. The first Acer griseum ever planted in American soil lives at the Arnold. More recently, the Vine and Shrub garden was redesigned with diagonal beds and galvanized steel arbors. This garden is impressively maintained and manicured by two very bright horticulturists.

 

We spent our lunch with some of the knowledgeable and passionate ladies of the education staff, Daphne Minner, Nancy Sableski and Julie Warsowe. In varying capacities, these ladies design and implement educational programs that serve everyone from the casual visitor to the students in the Boston public schools.

 

The Arnold's secret Bonsai collection

The Arnold’s secret Bonsai collection

Our visit with the Librarian, Lisa Pearson, revealed even more treasures, including a rare book of hand painted botanical drawings.

 

In the afternoon, we met Oren McBee, Manager of the Dana Greenhouses and Nursery. Here plants are methodically propagated and grown from seed. Once mature, they are planted out in the Arboretum.  Oren also gave us a sneak peak at the Arnold’s historic bonsai collection.

 

Our last stop was the new research building at Weld Hill. Bathed in natural light and recycled wood, the building is stunning. Our tour was expedited by Faye Rosin, Director of Research Facilitation.  This peek into the possibilities of plant science research was a fine way to punctuate our whirlwind day at the Arnold Arboretum.  Stay tuned for Day 2 of NAX.

The Arnold's emblem The Dawn Redwood

The Arnold’s emblem The Dawn Redwood

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Second Year = Board Positions

One exciting aspect of being a Longwood Graduate Fellow is that in the second year of the program we are appointed to sit as an observer on the Board of a local institution of horticulture.  I was appointed to the Tyler Arboretum and attended my first Board meeting last week.

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One of Tyler’s Treasures   (Sequoiadendron giganteum)

 

A non-profit organization’s Board of Directors (or Board of Trustees in Tyler’s case) has numerous responsibilities. Its purpose can vary depending on the institution, but in most cases the purpose is to provide guidance and oversight.  The responsibilities can include maintaining momentum, approving finances, overseeing fundraising, working in committees and promoting the institution.

I have often wondered what the Board really does and how influential they are. I’ve wondered how the Board members can be effective. Sitting in on my first Board meeting at Tyler seemed like a good way to start my investigation.

The meeting took place near the end of the workday and lasted about an hour and a half.  There were snacks and refreshments since it was a scorcher of a summer day.  A variety of topics were covered, a few things were voted upon, some great news was shared, some questions asked, research assigned, events noted, updates given and then there was a motion to close the meeting.  Pretty standard fare as I understand it, but what I enjoyed the most was seeing the way the Board members interacted with me and with eachother.  As I watched them work through the various issues at hand I noticed a few common threads that seemed to define the individuals.  I noted the following items that seemed like the six ‘must-do’s’ being effective:

  1. You have to be realistic but you have to be fearless
  2. You have to be willing to ask questions when things don’t make sense and ready to celebrate the small victories when they do.
  3. You have to have genuine interest in the institution, yet be able to keep your perspective.
  4. You have to figure out how far a dollar will go without sacrificing your mission or the quality of your work.
  5. You have to be excited by the opportunity to look for and design alternative solutions and when you find them you have to be willing to accept them.
  6. You have to choose the right people and then trust them to do their job.

I look forward to my year observing Tyler’s Board of Trustees and plan to periodically check-in on the LGP blog with the new insights gained about the purpose of Boards and the methods that make them most effective.

 

 

 

 

 

Symposium 2013: One Month Away!

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The Fern Floor at the Longwood Gardens Conservatory

Photography: Laurie Metzger

The Longwood Graduate Program’s Annual Symposium, Shifting Landscapes: Cultivating Connections with a Broader Community, is a little less than a month away!  If you are on the fence about attending, let me paint you a picture…

When you arrive at Longwood Gardens Visitor’s Center, you are greeted by the Graduate Students and Longwood’s friendly staff.  Beyond the glass doors, the garden steals your gaze, beckoning you into the crisp early spring morning. This is a special time in the garden.  The fresh air invigorates you.  Just as you begin admiring the spring bulbs, you catch a glimpse of the magnificent conservatory on the hill.

The scent of orchids intermingled with the aroma of fresh brewed coffee lead you to Longwood’s historic ballroom where your day of cultivating connections begins.  You’re surrounded by stunning beauty and thought provoking conversation.

This year’s Symposium boasts fresh perspectives and a delicious menu.  A Bistro style lunch will feature a variety of offerings from soups and salads to risotto cakes and vegetable dumplings.  Fine meats and savory vegetarian options will leave no guest unsatisfied.  Lunch will be held on the elegant Patio of Oranges with lots of opportunity for conversation.

This year’s Symposium will make use of advanced technology forums such as Twitter in addition to recognizable tools like chalk boards to help us creatively answer questions posed by our speakers. The multi-leveled discussion will spark imaginations and generate opportunities for growth in our public gardens.  Interacting with on-line viewers in addition to those in attendance, will allow for collaboration between States and Nations!

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The Flower Walk at Longwood Gardens

The day will finish with optional behind-the-scenes tours of various aspects of Longwood Gardens in addition to an optional, limited seating session with speaker, Louise Chawla.  Finish your day at the Symposium by prolonging your exploration and experience Longwood Gardens: Beyond the Garden Gates.

Please join us on March 15th 2013 for The Longwood Graduate Program’s Annual Symposium.  Shifting Landscapes: Cultivating Connections with a Broader Community. To register, click here. See you there!

 

Iguaçu Falls

After our late arrival in Foz do Iguaçu last night, we indulge by sleeping in until 8am.  After a quick breakfast at the hotel buffet, we are in the van at 8:30 with our local guide, Vera.  Vera is from Foz do Iguaçu and has been guiding tours of the area for 28 years.  We know we are in good hands.  Our mission today is to see both sides of the famous Iguaçu Falls, named as one of the great wonders of the natural world.

The Iguaçu Falls are waterfalls on the Iguaçu River at the border of Brazilian state Paraná and Argentine province Misiones. The falls have a flow capacity equal to three times that of Niagara Falls. 20% of the falls are in Brazilian territory, and the other 80% in Argentina. The “Garganta do Diablo” (“Devil’s Throat” in Portuguese) is the tallest of the falls at 318 feet.

We arrive at the Brazilian side of the falls at 9am.  The falls are surrounded by Iguaçu National Park, a huge swath of sub-tropical rainforest.  Vera pays our admission and we begin our journey to the falls.  A short walk later, we get our first of the falls.  All we can say is, “Wow!”

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One of the first views of the falls through the trees–it would only get better.

A view from a platform on the Brazilian side.

A view from a platform on the Brazilian side.

A viewing platform.

A viewing platform.

Two hours and hundreds of photographs later, we climb back in the van to visit the Argentinian side of the falls.

On our way to Argentina, Vera takes us to a local barbecue spot so that we can try mate.  Mate is a tea-like drink made from Ilex paraguariensis.  Drinking and sharing mate has its own set of traditions, much like coffee does in the US and Europe. We are in a bit of a hurry, so we are only able to enjoy the mate for a few minutes before we must leave. We pass around the special mate cup, sipping the hot liquid from a silver straw.  It tastes a little bit like very strong green tea.

Back in the van, we cross the Argentina border with no problems.  A short time later, we enter the Argentina side of the Iguaçu National Park.  As we begin our walk to the falls, we quickly notice the popularity of mate amongst park visitors.  Many carry the distinct cup and thermoses for extra hot water.  After a short train ride and a lot of walking, we suddenly come upon the falls and look down straight down into the Devil’s Throat.

After the train ride back to a visitor center, we are tempted to take the train back to the park entrance.  Fortunately, Vera insists we take another walk. Little did we know, this walk includes several more stunning views of the waterfalls. We can see the platforms where we walked on the Brazilian side earlier that morning.  We can’t resist taking more photos.

Falls from the Argentinian side.

Falls from the Argentinian side.

Finally, we are done with the falls and climb back in the van to return to Brazil. We are very lucky to have Vera as our guide. Not only does she know the Iguaçu area very well, but she also loves birds, animals and plants.  All day long, she points out plants and animals that she knows will interest us and carries with her a book on wildlife that we frequently reference.  We are grateful to have her as our guide.

There really are no words adequate to describe Iguaçu Falls.  Hopefully some of our photographs will convey some of the majesty of the waterfalls.