Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; firstname.lastname@example.org
Cucumber beetle activity increased significantly this past week, so be sure to scout for beetles as well as aphids. Fresh market cucumbers are susceptible to bacterial wilt, so treatments should be applied before beetles feed extensively on cotyledons and the first true leaves. Although pickling cucumbers have a tolerance to wilt, a treatment may still be needed for machine-harvested pickling cucumbers when 5% of plants are infested with beetles and/or plants are showing fresh feeding injury. A treatment should be applied for aphids if 10-20% of the plants are infested with aphids with 5 or more aphids per leaf.
Continue to scout all melons for aphids, cucumber beetles, and spider mites. The treatment threshold for aphids is 20% infested plants with at least 5 aphids per leaf. Although not wide-spread at this point, we continue to find fields with spider mites at economic levels. The threshold for mites is 20-30% infested crowns with 1-2 mites per leaf. Cucumber beetles increased significantly in cantaloupes and watermelons. Since beetles can continue to re-infest fields as well as hide under the plastic, be sure to check carefully for beetles as well as their feeding damage. Multiple applications are often needed to achieve effective control. Now that most fields are blooming, it is important to consider pollinators when making an insecticide application. See this publication for information on protecting pollinators: (http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/pnw/pnw591.pdf).
Continue to sample for thrips. We continue to hear reports of high thrips activity on crops in Virginia. You should also continue to sample for corn borers and watch carefully for egg masses. Before fruit is present, these young corn borer larvae can infest stems and petioles. As soon as the first flowers can be found, be sure to consider a corn borer treatment. Depending on local corn borer trap catches, sprays should be applied on a 7 to 10-day schedule once pepper fruit is ¼ – ½ inch in diameter. Be sure to check local moth catches in your area by calling the Crop Pest Hotline (instate: 800-345-7544; out of state: 302-831-8851) or visiting our website at (http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/traps/latestblt.html). You should also watch for an increase in aphid populations. A treatment may be needed prior to fruit set if you find 1-2 aphids per leaf for at least 2 consecutive weeks and beneficial activity is low.
Continue to scout fields for Colorado potato beetle (CPB), corn borers (ECB) and leafhoppers. Adult CPB as well as the small and large larvae can now be found. A treatment should be considered for adults when you find 25 beetles per 50 plants and defoliation has reached the 10% level. Once larvae are detected, the threshold is 4 small larvae per plant or 1.5 large larvae per plant. As a general guideline, controls should be applied for leafhoppers if you find ½ to one adult per sweep and/or one nymph per every 10 leaves.
Continue to sample all seedling stage fields for leafhopper and thrips activity. The thrips threshold is 5-6 per leaflet and the leafhopper threshold is 5 per sweep. If both insects are present, the threshold for each should be reduced by 1/3. In addition, continue to watch for bean leaf beetle. Damage appears as circular holes in leaves and significant defoliation can quickly occur. As a general guideline, a treatment should be considered if defoliation exceeds 20% prebloom. As a general guideline, once corn borer catches reach 2 per night, fresh market and processing snap beans in the bud to pin stages should be sprayed for corn borer. Sprays will be needed at the bud and pin stages on processing beans. Once pins are present on fresh market snap beans and corn borer trap catches are above 2 per night, a 7 to 10-day schedule should be maintained for corn borer control. (http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/traps/latestblt.html) and http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/thresh/snapbeanecbthresh.html).
Continue to sample seedling stage fields for cutworms and flea beetles. You should also sample whorl through pre-tassel stage corn for corn borers and corn earworms. A treatment should be applied if 15% of the plants are infested with larvae. We have also seen an increase in corn earworm catches so be sure to watch carefully for small larvae being found in tassels. The first silk sprays will be needed for corn earworm as soon as ear shanks are visible. Be sure to check both blacklight and pheromone trap catches since the spray schedules can quickly change. Trap catches are generally updated on Tuesday and Friday mornings (http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/traps/latestblt.html and http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/thresh/silkspraythresh.html). You can also call the Crop Pest Hotline for the most recent trap catches (instate: 800-345-7544; out of state: 302-831-8851).