Posts Tagged ‘16:6’

WCU Volume 16, Issue 6 – April 25, 2008

Friday, April 25th, 2008

PDF Version of WCU 16:6 – April 25, 2008

In this issue:

Supplemental Label for Zeal
Strawberry Fruit Rots
High Tunnel Tomatoes
Plasticulture Troubleshooting
Control of Poast-Tolerant Sweet Corn
Sweet Corn Response to Callisto, Impact, and Accent
Reflex Will Severely Injure Lima Beans
Grower’s Guide to Understanding Strobilurin Fungicides (FRAC Code 11)

Agronomic Crops
Agronomic Crop Insects
Small Grain Diseases
Fusarium Head Blight and Management Options
Tips for Successful Soybean Production
Grain Marketing Highlights

Water is Needed to “Activate” Soil-Applied Herbicides
Why the Fertilizer Price Increases?

Agronomic Crops Twilight Meeting – May 19
Mid-Atlantic Berry Guide on Web
Small/Beginning Farm Series Workshop: Irrigation for Your Crops and Water Quality – May 15
Recent Topics on Gordon’s Blog
AgrAbility Workshop on Chronic Pain – June 9


AgrAbility Workshop on Chronic Pain

Friday, April 25th, 2008

June 9, 2008     9:00 a.m.-noon
Richard A. Henson Conference Center
University of Maryland Eastern Shore
Princess Anne, MD

The American Chronic Pain Association and the Delaware-Maryland AgrAbility Project will be presenting a chronic pain seminar entitled “Growing Well with Pain”.

Penny Cowan, founder and Executive Director of the American Chronic Pain Association, will lead this workshop aimed at helping agricultural workers, their families, and the health care community to better understand chronic pain and cope with the challenges it presents.

Go to for additional details on the workshop.

Reservations are required and the seminar is free if you register by June 4, 2008. Call Sally VanSchaik to register at 1-877-204-3276.

Recent Topics on Gordon’s Blog

Friday, April 25th, 2008

For Current Agricultural Information from the UD Kent Co. Extension Office Visit


Recent Topics:

Farm Safety – How Prepared Are You?
Planters and Stands in Corn and Other Large Seeded Crops
Proline for Fusarium Head Blight Suppression in Wheat
2,4-D an Important Tool for Burndown Programs
Getting High Yields in Full Season Soybeans
Asiatic Garden Beetle Grubs in Corn
Storing Wheat
Soybeans – Can You Reduce Seeding Rates in Soybean?
Kent County Land Use Plan on Hold
Poultry – Understanding Feed Withdrawal
Current Cutworm Situation
Dairy – Managing Dry Cows
Wheat Soil-Borne Mosaic Virus

Small and/or Beginning Farm Series Workshop: Irrigation for Your Crops and Water Quality

Friday, April 25th, 2008

Thursday, May 15, 2008     6:00 p.m.
DSU Smyrna Outreach and Research Center
884 Smyrna-Leipsic Rd, Smyrna, DE

We never know how much rain we will get during the growing season.  Learn about effective ways to provide water to your plants and keep your well protected.

Light refreshments served.

Please call (302) 857-6462 to register.

This workshop is part of the 2008 Small/ Beginning Farm Workshop Series held by Delaware State University.  For complete information on the workshops planned, see the brochure at

Mid-Atlantic Berry Guide on Web

Friday, April 25th, 2008

The newly revised 2008 Mid-Atlantic Berry Guide is now posted on the web at It is in chapter form, which allows computer users with lower connection speeds better access. This is an excellent publication with complete information on strawberries, blueberries, and brambles. Extension offices in all three Delaware counties also have hard copies for sale.  Cost is $18.00.

Why the Fertilizer Price Increases?

Friday, April 25th, 2008

Anna Stoops, Extension Ag Agent, New Castle Co.;

We’ve all heard about it by now – the rise in the cost of fertilizer and how it is impacting everything from the food we eat, to the clothes we wear, to the fuel we put in our equipment and vehicles. But, what is causing fertilizer prices to skyrocket?

The answer in part, is simple economics – supply and demand. According to an article by The Fertilizer Institute (, global demand for fertilizer has increased anywhere from 14 to 19 percent from 2001 to 2006. Some of this additional demand is coming from developing countries, in particular India, China and Brazil, where people are increasing their food consumption as their incomes increase. The production of ethanol is also impacting fertilizer demand and price. The U.S. Department of Agriculture predicts that by the year 2011, U.S. ethanol production could reach 11 billion gallons, up from the February 2007 volume of 5.6 billion gallons. Corn production uses 43% of the U.S. nutrient demands and this is placing significant pressures on the economics of not only fertilizer, but the grains that are fed to livestock and what crops farmers decide to plant. Other factors contributing to the rise in fertilizer prices are the declining value of the U.S. dollar, higher transportation costs and the competition of global economies. Read the entire article here:

Water is Needed to “Activate” Soil-Applied Herbicides

Friday, April 25th, 2008

Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist;

Herbicides applied to the soil surface require rainfall or irrigation to move them into the soil where the plants will absorb them; or need to be mechanically incorporated (field cultivator). The amount of water needed to “activate” these herbicides depends on the water solubility of the herbicide and moisture content of the soil. Most soil-applied herbicides require 0.5 to 0.75 inches of water to be moved in the soil if the soil is “dry” (less water if the soil is moist). Princep requires 0.75 to 1.0 inches of water to become “activated”. If you have irrigation and your corn herbicides have been applied but you have not received at least 0.5 inches of water, you should consider applying that amount with your system. This is one situation where spending a little money now could save money later. For instance, if your residual grass herbicide is not moved into the soil and grass control is poor, you are looking at a postemergence application of Steadfast or Option. Spending the money to irrigate and activate the herbicides could save a high herbicide bill later.

Solubility is measured in parts per million (ppm) as how many milliliters of the herbicide will dissolve in 1 liter of water. The less soluble the herbicide, the more moisture (rain or irrigation) needed to incorporate (activate) the herbicide. The relative moisture to activate the herbicide is a guideline for rainfall or irrigation needed within a short time after application to move the herbicide into the root zone. Amount of moisture needed also depends on the soil moisture level at time of application.

Herbicides, Their Solubility, and Relative Moisture Required for Their Activation


Solubility1 (ppm)

Relative moisture required to activate2










Dual II Magnum/Cinch















Prowl/other pendimethalin formulations









Bicep II Magnum/Cinch ATZ

Dual II Magnum (or Cinch), Atrazine

Bicep Lite II Magnum

Dual II Magnum, Atrazine


Micro-Tech, Atrazine

Field Master

Harness, Atrazine, Roundup


Topnotch, Atrazine

Guardsman Max

Outlook, Atrazine

Harness Xtra/Degree Xtra

Harness (or Degree), Atrazine


Dual II Magnum, Callisto, Atrazine

1in unbuffered distilled water
2Relative moisture ranges from little (+) to high amount of moisture (++++). ppm <100= ++++; 100-250= +++; 250-500 ppm= ++; >500= +
NOTE: “++++” does not need 4X the moisture as “+”; it is used to demonstrate herbicides with more +s need more moisture for incorporation (activation).

Grain Marketing Highlights

Friday, April 25th, 2008

Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist;

CFTC Forum Produces Mixed Bag
Tuesday’s Commodity Futures Trading Commission led forum in Washington, DC may have raised more questions than answers. Having watched a fair portion of the day’s proceedings there are several factors that have led to the current situation in the agricultural futures market’s sector. Among those factors, the extent of the impact that billions of new dollars of speculator investment have had on U.S. agricultural futures markets is still under consideration. CFTC is likely to compile a list of suggestions for the trading exchanges to consider enacting as a result of the forum, although there did not appear to be a consensus on which suggestions might be forthcoming. Among other things that might occur, watch for information concerning swap contracts. The Chicago Board of Trade, on Tuesday, requested CFTC approval of swap contracts for corn basis swaps, calendar swaps for corn, wheat, and soybeans to be traded over the counter as a tool to deal with volatile markets.

Volatile Commodity Trading Expected To Continue
The price of crude has surged about $4.00 per barrel higher than last week’s all time high with the April contract going off the board in yesterday’s trading slightly over $118.00 per barrel. Meanwhile the U.S. dollar index is harboring near recently set lows.

Argentine farmers are threatening to strike again due to their government’s plan to tax soybean exports on a sliding scale, meaning the tax would increase as soybean prices increase. This development is currently helping U.S. soybean exports and has the potential to help U.S. soybean exports even more. Therefore, this is not the time to advance soybean sales. For the week ending April 17, 2008, U.S. soybean exports are already reported to be ahead of the pace needed to meet USDA projections of 1.075 billion bushels for the ’07/’08 marketing year. The weekly export sales report for both corn and wheat were called neutral before the market opening this morning.

Weekly Crop Progress
U.S. corn plantings were reported at only 4 percent for the 18 states that planted 91% of last year’s corn acreage, 2 percent more than last week and well behind the five year average. Commodity traders will be watching the weather closely over the weekend.

Currently (4/24/08 ahead of the open), Dec corn is trading at $6.12 per bushel; Nov soybeans $12.58; July SRW wheat at $8.31 per bushel.

For technical assistance on making grain marketing decisions contact Carl L. German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist.

Tips for Successful Soybean Production

Friday, April 25th, 2008

Richard Taylor, Extension Agronomist;

With the increase in bean prices you might automatically assume that beans will be a profitable enterprise this year, but since most beans are grown dryland you still will be at the mercy of the weather, in particular in need of timely rainfall. However, even if a profitable season might be likely, there are many agronomic practices that can be used to improve the chances of success.

The first one that comes to mind relates to the yield curve as affected by planting date. In an article for the April 2008 issue of Soy News, Bob Mulrooney, UD Extension Plant Pathologist, suggested that a seed treatment might be a good idea this year due to the fragility of the seed coats of last year’s seed production. In research conducted in Delaware and surrounding states in the past, early planting under cold temperatures did demonstrate the value of seed treatments as well as indicated that the earlier soybeans are planted in May, the higher the ultimate yield potential for full-season soybeans.

For double-cropped beans planting as soon as possible following the removal of the small grain crop is a key to success. In addition, for dryland beans controlling weeds either just prior to planting or as early after emergence as the herbicide label permits is essential to limit water loss and promote early vigorous growth.

Another key to maximizing soybean yields is to know the yield potential for each field you are planting and use this knowledge to decide which fields get planted first. For both full-season and double-crop beans, the fields with the highest yield potential should be planted first using the best adapted variety or varieties available and the best management possible. Next on the list should be the fields that may not produce outstanding yields but still are good fields. Last on your list of fields to plant should be the marginal fields, most drought-prone fields, or any fields with known limitations. If you run out of seed of the best varieties or you won’t be able to plant some fields until very late, it should be on these very marginal fields.

Other tips that should be kept in mind include the following:

*Seeding rate trials often point to small increases in yield with higher populations; and although the increase didn’t always pay at earlier soybean prices, current conditions suggest increasing your target population to 225,000 seeds per acre.

*For no-till seedings or following small grains where crop residue is a potential problem, boost seeding rates by 10 percent, set the planter to be sure seed is into moist soil or at least into soil, and use row cleaners or sweeps when possible.

*Inoculate your soybeans with one of the new strains of Bradyrhizobium.

*Plant a range of maturity group beans so that a short drought at the wrong time does not severely impact your farm yield.

*Observe beans carefully around the V5 to V9 growth stages (about 5 to 9 trifoliate leaves visible) for symptoms of manganese (Mn) deficiency (interveinal yellowing of the younger leaves) and treat promptly with either chelated Mn or techmangam at about 0.5 lb Mn/A. Manganese is the most common nutrient deficiency found on soybeans in this region. A second application sometimes is required when soybeans reach the bloom stage; scout appropriately.

*If you have the ability to irrigate double-crop beans, apply adequate irrigation to maintain rapid, non-stressed growth right through the seed fill stage.

Fusarium Head Blight and Management Options

Friday, April 25th, 2008

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist;

With all the corn that was planted last season much of our wheat crop was planted in corn ground with varying levels of tillage: no-till, minimum-till, and mold board plowed. The one down side of planting into corn residue if it is exposed on the soil suface is that one of the stalk rot fungi, Fusarium graminearum, is also the principal pathogen that causes Fusarium head blight or scab of wheat. Vulnerability of wheat is increased when the fungus is present in the field versus having the fungus blow in from another site.

Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab of wheat and the accumulation of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) in harvested grain, are periodically problems in Delaware. High DON levels will end up in rejection of wheat loads. Fortunately in recent years we have not had a severe outbreak of scab in Delaware.

Strobilurin fungicides (e.g., Quadris, Headline) or fungicide containing a strobilurin (e.g., Quilt, Stratego) are not recommended for scab control because they may result in elevated DON levels compared to untreated wheat. The only class of fungicides that have not had this increase in mycotoxins is the triazole class. The only registered triazoles for wheat and barley in Delaware are Tilt and Proline. There has been a much higher rate of success at suppressing scab with Proline than with Tilt in work conducted by Dr. Arv Grybauskas at the University of Maryland.

Proline Information
The proper use of Proline will help suppress FHB and DON when used with other FHB/DON management tactics. However, Proline is not a “silver bullet” for managing FHB/DON. In other words, do not expect Proline to provide the same level of FHB/DON control as you have come to expect when fungicides are used to control other wheat diseases. The key is to think in terms of disease suppression, not control. Nevertheless, a 40% reduction in FHB and DON can have a significant economic impact locally, state-wide, and regionally if FHB is moderate to severe in 2008. But, be advised that significant losses due to FHB and/or DON can still occur even where Proline is applied if FHB is severe.

For FHB/DON suppression the Proline 480SC label indicates a use rate of 4.3 to 5.7 fl oz/A applied to wheat “within a time period from when at least 75% of the wheat heads on the main stem are fully emerged (~Feekes stage 10.4) to when 50% of the heads on the main stem are in flower (~Feekes stage 10.52)”. Applications cannot be made within 30 days of harvest. Although the Proline label allows for some flexibility in terms of timing of application, most of the efficacy data for Proline in suppressing FHB/DON are based on application at early flowering (Feekes stage 10.51).

Excellent fungicide coverage on wheat heads is crucial to achieve the greatest possible FHB/DON suppression. This is no small challenge since most spray systems used in wheat were developed to deliver pesticides to foliage (horizontal structures). In order to maximize coverage on heads (vertical targets), significant changes may need to be made to the sprayer boom system. Also, discipline must be exercised to ensure that proper sprayer pressure and volumes are used. The Proline label gives some suggestions on how to achieve acceptable spray coverage.

Making Appropriate Fungicide Spray Decisions
One desire we all have is for fungicides to be used only when needed. Regular field scouting for foliar fungal diseases has been successfully used by growers for many years to determine if and when to spray fungicides. However, this is not possible with FHB since once symptoms are present it is TOO LATE to spray. Note: Proline is also effective on glume blotch, rusts, and tan spot.

Go to to access the Proline label.

Below are some general guidelines to help you determine if you should spray Proline for FHB/DON suppression.

During period leading up to, during and immediately after head emergence:

*Soil moisture has been good for the past month (relates to spore production, dispersal of Fusarium graminearum spores, and crop infection)

*Crop has good yield potential (relates to economics and crop density, which increases canopy humidity and may increase spore production, facilitate spore dispersal, and encourage crop infection)

*Temperatures 68-86°F (relates to spore production and crop infection)

*Humidity is high (80% day or night) and/or free water (such as dew) is present on the heads during this period (relates to spore production, dispersal, and crop infection)

If most or all of the above conditions exist when the crop is just beginning to flower, consider spraying as soon as possible.

New Web-Based FHB Prediction Tool
In addition to the above general guidelines, an exciting new tool can also be used to help determine the FHB risk and need to spray. This tool is a web-based, disease forecasting model made available by Penn State University, The Ohio State University, Kansas State University, and the U.S. Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative. This forecasting model utilizes real-time weather data from numerous National Weather Service stations within each state. Go to and click on “Risk map tool”.

You will be asked if you are growing winter or spring wheat. At this point you will come to a U.S. map and are asked to click on the state of interest. The FHB Risk Management Tool page will have a map that shows where the weather data are being retrieved. To the upper left corner of the page is a calendar section labeled “Assessment Date”. This section needs a bit of explaining. You will note right away that the tool will only let you click on the current date and the preceding 7 days. So, if you estimate your crop will begin to flower (the beginning of FHB susceptibility) on May 7, but it is only May 3, the best you will be able to do is to determine if the weather on May 3 (or the previous 7 days) is favorable for FHB. My advice is to begin determining the FHB risk using this model 1-2 weeks out from crop flowering. Keep checking your wheat and keep checking the model every 1-2 days. By the time your crop reaches early flowering, you should have a good feel for the FHB risk in your area. If the forecast model says the FHB risk is high (medium if you are not a risk taker), and the forecast matches your local weather and crop reality, then you might consider spraying as soon as possible.

Once you actually see it and play around with it, what I have said above will make much more sense. The model does have several practical limitations in predicting final FHB levels; these are clearly discussed within the Prediction Center website. Perhaps the greatest limitation of the model is that it does not account for weather conditions during flowering and grain fill. Specifically, disease-favorable weather occurring during late flowering and grain fill can greatly impact final FHB/DON levels. The bottom line is that final FHB/DON levels may not always be reflected by the model’s risk output. The authors of the model discuss this limitation under “Reality Check” in the “Model Details” section of the Prediction Center.

We all hope that FHB is non-existent this spring. However, if this is not the case, wheat producers now have an additional tool to use to minimize FHB and DON development this spring.

Adapted for Delaware from “FUNGICIDAL CONTROL OF FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT (HEAD SCAB) AND DEOXYNIVALENOL (DON) IN WHEAT” By Don Hershman in the April 14 issue of the Kentucky Pest News.

If you have read all this you may be wondering what this is all about. In the past we have not had a fungicide for scab control to consider. The added management decision is whether to wait and use a new fungicide at flowering that would give some level of scab suppression and rust and glume blotch control if the weather turns out to be favorable for scab or take your chances that it does not show up and take advantage of the disease protection that the strobilurins or strobilurin/triazole combos provide, when applied at head emergence. Unfortunately we do not have any current data with Proline and its control of other diseases besides scab, since we have not had weather for diseases in the last several years that provided the needed disease control information.