Posts Tagged ‘16:8’

WCU Volume 16, Issue 8 – May 9, 2008

Friday, May 9th, 2008

Volume 16, Issue 8 – May 9, 2008

PDF Version of WCU 16:8 – May 9, 2008

In this issue:

Vegetables
Vegetable Crop Insects
Uniformity in Processing Vegetable Crops
Potato Disease Advisory – May 7, 2008

Agronomic Crops
Agronomic Crop Insects
Small Grain Diseases
Soybean Rust Update
Planning for the Second Hay Harvest
Recommencing Dryland Corn Planting
Grain Marketing Highlights

General
New Insecticide/Label Update

Announcements
Agronomic Crops Twilight Meeting – May 19
Small/Beginning Farm Series Workshop: Irrigation for Your Crops and Water Quality – May 15
Recent Topics on Gordon’s Blog
Wye Strawberry Twilight- May 21
AgrAbility Workshop on Chronic Pain – June 9

Weather

New Insecticide/Label Update

Friday, May 9th, 2008

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Coragen (DuPont)
You may have heard that this new insecticide recently received a federal label. The new active ingredient is rynaxypyr which is very effective on “worm” pests. Coragen is labeled on a number of vegetable crops (Altacor will be the trade name for the same product used in the fruit tree market). The label has not been posted to CDMS or the DuPont website as of this date. I have been told by Dave Pyne at the DDA that they just received the registration package from DuPont. Once we have copies of the federal and state labels we will provide the links.

Hero (FMC)
This insecticide is a combination of zeta -cypermethrin and bifenthrin. It recently received a federal and state label on soybeans and root and tuber crops. Please be sure to read the label for restrictions including rates and time allowed between applications. On soybeans, the label states do not make applications less than 30 days apart. (http://www.cdms.net/LDat/ld80Q005.pdf)

Warrior II (Syngenta)
There will be a new formulation of Warrior in the market place called Warrior II. This new formulation is twice as active (2.08 lbs of active ingredient per gallon) as the old Warrior (1.04 lb of active ingredient per gallon) so be sure to read the label for the correct rates as well as restrictions. (http://www.cdms.net/LDat/ld8JD000.pdf) The new formulation (Warrior II) was shipped to the marketplace this week and by the middle of June the transition will be complete. So, in the interim, there will be both formulations in the marketplace.

Grain Marketing Highlights

Friday, May 9th, 2008

Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu

May Supply/Demand Highlights
USDA released the official May supply/demand estimates this morning. Just how the numbers line up for this time of year (below, above, or at pre-report expectations) on the high order of things really is not that important particularly for the row crops. The row crops have a way to go before we can start counting our chickens (bushels produced). The big question remains: can U.S. corn planting be completed on time? As of Monday of this week the 18 states that planted 91% of last year’s corn crop were 27% planted vs. 10% the week before, 45% for the same week last year, and 59% for the 5-year average. Needless to say, it is getting late. However, reams of copy will be written about this subject over the next month or so. Fact of the matter is: first, the corn crop has got to go into the ground. Second, we are likely to need a long growing season in order to stand a chance of making trend line yield. Third, trend line yield will be difficult to achieve in the event any further weather issues arise. Lastly, the scenario concerning the size of this year’s corn and soybean crops will take the next several months to develop. Therefore, this morning’s supply and demand estimates for the row crops really don’t mean much at this point in time. However, wheat is another story.

Wheat Analysis
The case of wheat is a different story. Winter wheat production is projected to increase from last year, up 26 million bushels. All wheat production for ’08/’09 is projected at 2.4 billion bushels, up 16 percent from a year ago. Hard red winter wheat production is estimated at 1.011 billion bushels, up 5 percent from a year ago. Soft red winter wheat production, projected at 551 million bushels is projected to be 53.9 percent larger than a year ago. It is fair to say that wheat prices are likely to decline further from their current levels, at least through harvest.

Ending stocks for U.S. wheat were reduced slightly from last month and are now projected at 239 million bushels for the current marketing year. U.S. wheat ending stocks for the ’08/’09 marketing year are projected to slightly more than double, now projected at 483 million bushels. World ending stocks are projected to increase by nearly 12 million metric tons in the ’08/’09 marketing year, now placed at 123.99 mmt as compared to 112.48 for the ’07/08 marketing year. Australian wheat production is expected to nearly double from last year’s drought reduced crop, now estimated at 24 mmt (13.1 mmt last year). Canadian wheat production is projected to increase by 5 mmt over last year, projected at 25 mmt. July CBOT soft red winter wheat futures are currently trading at $8.00 per bushel (down 22 cents per bushel from yesterday’s close).

Corn Analysis
Ending stocks for U.S. corn for the current marketing year are projected at 1.383 billion bushels, 100 million bushels more than last month and 79 million bushels less than the carry in from the ’06/’07 marketing year. For next year (’08/’09) the carry is projected to be cut almost in half at 763 million bushels. World ending stocks for corn were reduced slightly from last month, now projected at 99.03 mmt. Argentine and Brazilian corn production are projected to increase 6 mmt above last year’s production, for a combined total production of 80.5 mmt. Dec ’08 corn futures are currently trading at $6.46 per bushel with the high at $6.54 per bushel on the day. Good, bad, or indifferent corn prices can and will explode even higher if planting progress lags into yield reducing territory on the calendar, the primary date being May 30th.

Soybean Analysis
Ending stocks for U.S. soybeans were reduced 15 million bushels from last month’s estimates and are now projected at 145 million bushels. Ending stocks for the ’08/’09 marketing year are projected to increase by 40 million bushels, estimated at 185 million bushels. In April, USDA reported that Brazil and Argentina are projected to produce a combined total of 108 mmt of soybeans. World ending stocks of soybeans were reported at 49.31 mmt. Nov ’08 soybean futures are currently trading at $12.81 per bushel, up 35 cents from yesterday’s close.

Marketing Strategy
Crude oil is currently at $124.80 per barrel, a new high. The U.S. dollar index is now trading at 73.315, within 2 points of the trading range the dollar has been in since March ’08. ’08 wheat that one does not have a home for should be booked soon. In the case of corn, it is getting near the time to consider the purchase of put options in order to establish a minimum price and still be in the game in the event that prices move higher. Timing is the key. One needs to wait and see if and when the ’08 corn crop gets planted. Those that have not done any soybean sales need to consider the possibility of more soybean acres getting planted than indicated on March 31st due to the possible shift from corn to soybeans due to wet conditions. For technical assistance on grain marketing decisions contact Carl L. German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist.

Recommencing Dryland Corn Planting

Friday, May 9th, 2008

Richard Taylor, Extension Agronomist; rtaylor@udel.edu

With a weather forecast indicating the likelihood of several inches of rainfall over the next five to seven day period, the soil surface moisture levels will be recharged so that growers who halted their corn planting due to dry soil conditions will soon begin corn planting again. For full-season hybrids, yields begin to decline slowly at first as planting enters the May timeframe. Up until the middle of May, corn yield reduction for dryland corn averages around 8% but thereafter yield declines rapidly as the potential for unfavorable temperatures during the pollination period increase. Growers should try to have as much of their corn planted by the second week of May as possible to ensure the best chance for profitable corn production or switch to shorter season hybrids.

Research at the University of Delaware on dryland corn has shown that growers can switch to shorter season corn hybrids and loose ten percent or less of their yield potential when planting as late as May 26. Even an early June planting showed better yield potential (expressed as percent of maximum yield) for short-season hybrids. Hybrid selection will be a key factor since full-season hybrids often have higher absolute yield potential than the short-season hybrids. Also, select hybrids known to be “work horses” or those that can tolerate many stresses and still produce good yields.

Planning for the Second Hay Harvest

Friday, May 9th, 2008

Richard Taylor, Extension Agronomist; rtaylor@udel.edu

 With a weather forecast indicating the likelihood of several inches of rainfall over the next five to seven day period, the soil surface moisture levels will be recharged so that hay producers either finished with, or about to begin their first hay harvest need to begin planning for the second hay harvest. In particular, as soon as the first harvest is removed from the field, nitrogen (N) fertilizer and the recommended amount of potassium (potash) and phosphorus should be applied to boost the yield potential for the second harvest cycle. Nitrogen, of course, is the key to promoting extra yield potential but potash also will be essential to help the forage grow well during the early summer high temperatures and with low available subsoil moisture. The latest research results from The Pennsylvania State University suggest adding 50 lb N/acre per ton of expected yield for orchardgrass, 60 lbs N/acre per ton of expected yield to timothy, and as much as 70 lbs N/acre per ton of expected yield to tall fescue. With all of these species, if drought conditions develop, the grower needs to carefully monitor any hay harvested for nitrate levels to prevent potential problems with nitrate toxicity.

Soybean Rust Update

Friday, May 9th, 2008

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Soybean rust can currently be found on kudzu in six counties in Florida and one county in Texas. Soybean sentinel plots are being established throughout the Gulf Coast region. Kudzu is also greening-up rapidly in this area of the country. Scientists in the South are now looking at native stands of coral bean, the new host, to see if any soybean rust can be found. To date coral bean can be found in TX, LA and FL.

Small Grain Diseases

Friday, May 9th, 2008

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

 Wheat
Last week we did identify barley yellow dwarf virus on wheat in two locations in Sussex County. One was identified as BYDV-pav strain and the other tested positive for BYDV-pav as well, but also tested positive for cereal yellow dwarf virus CYDV-RPV. This used to be BYDV-RPV, the most serious strain. Both are transmitted by aphids, and there isn’t much that can be done for management except resistant varieties.

Information from an Illinois bulletin:
BYDV and cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV). Aphids spread BYDV and CYDV disease. Aphids carrying the virus transmit it to wheat plants through their saliva when they feed. The most serious yield loss results from fall infection by viruliferous aphids’ feeding on wheat seedlings. Fall infections typically result in stunted plants and fewer tillers when spring growth resumes. Leaf discoloration is usually the most notable early-season symptom. Leaves may be varying shades of red to purple, pinkish-yellow to brown. As the plant continues to grow, older leaves typically begin to die back from the tip and may feel somewhat leathery, while the new leaves begin to discolor. Spring infections occur as well, but they commonly discolor only the flag leaf and typically do not cause significant yield reductions.

There were three strains of BYDV: MAV (mild), PAV (serious), and RPV (more serious). This was probably confusing enough, but for numerous biological reasons the BYDV-RPV strain has been renamed and put in the cereal yellow dwarf group; its acronym is now CYDV-RPV. Testing of plant material for BYDV or CYDV should include tests for both BYDV-PAV and CYDV-RPV (formerly known as BYDV-RPV) to be certain, first, whether a virus is causing the symptoms and, if so, which one it is responsible.

Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV strain

Proline for scab suppression was featured in an article in WCU Volume 16, Issue 6 (http://agdev.anr.udel.edu/weeklycropupdate/?p=130). Now, Caramba (metconazole) from BASF and Folicur (tebuconazole) from Bayer CropScience have also received section 3 federal registration for use in wheat. In terms of efficacy against head scab and vomitoxin, Proline, Caramba and a tank mix of Proline + Folicur are very comparable. Data from studies conducted across the US show that on average Proline + Folicur, Caramba, and Proline alone, when sprayed at flowering (Feekes 10.5.1), had about 50% reduction in scab and about 42% reduction in DON when compared to the untreated check. Proline is recommended at rates between 4.3 – 5.7 fl oz/acre, Caramba between 14 – 17 fl oz/acre, and the tank mix of Folicur + Proline at 3 fl oz/acre of each product (commonly referred to as Proline 3+3). I am not sure if Folicur and Caramba are available or if state labels have been issued yet for use this season, but if scab control is needed these three products are the products of choice.

For scab suppression, the best results were achieved when these products were: applied at flowering (Feekes 10.5.1), forward and backward mounted nozzles were used to achieve maximum coverage of the heads, and the products were applied to moderately resistant wheat varieties. With the hope of controlling as many diseases as possible with a single fungicide application, producers may be tempted to apply these products as early as boot (Feekes 10). However, for head scab management, treatments applied at Feekes 10 are much less effective than those applied at Feekes 10.5.1. It should be noted that even when applied at the correct growth stage none of these products will provide complete scab control, especially if prolonged periods of wet conditions occur during and after flowering. The term here is SUPPRESSION. What producers can expect is a reduction of head scab and vomitoxin, but NOT total 100% control.

Reprinted in part from “More Fungicides Registered for the Suppression of Head Scab in Wheat” by Pierce Paul and Dennis Mills in the May 5 edition of the Crop Observation and Recommendation Network newsletter from the Ohio State University agronomic crops team.

Agronomic Crop Insects

Friday, May 9th, 2008

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Small Grains
We saw a significant increase in true armyworm catches over the past 10 days, especially in the Dover, Little Creek, Milford and Bridgeville areas. High numbers of moths were caught when you compare the numbers to catches at this same time last year (Table 1).

Table 1. Early Season True Armyworm Black Light Trap Comparisons

Trap Location

Total Number True Armyworm Moths

May 1
(
7 day catch)

May 5
(
4 day catch)

2007

2008

2007

2008

Kent Co.
Dover

10

135

2

550

Harrington

14

12

4

27

Killen Pond

15

30

Little Creek

17

24

7

109

Milford

28

73

14

74

Rising Sun

21

14

11

17

Wyoming

7

14

3

25

Sussex Co.
Bridgeville

29

28

5

64

Concord

2

4

1

2

Georgetown

16

7

2

10

Greenwood

13

13

1

13

Laurel

19

7

5

0

Seaford

5

10

2

4

 The University of Kentucky is also reporting record numbers (http://www.uky.edu/Ag/kpn/kpn_08/pn080428.htm#armarm and http://www.uky.edu/Ag/kpn/kpn_08/pn080505.htm#armarm).

As Doug Johnson from Kentucky indicated, high moth catches do not always mean we will see a large population of caterpillars. Many other factors, particularly disease, predation and parasitism, can impact how well the eggs and caterpillars survive. However, we may be at increased risk compared to most years, so scouting will be important. Although true armyworms overwinter in our area, we may also be getting migrant moths from the South. Therefore, be sure to scout all small grains for armyworms. Although the combination sprays of fungicides and insecticides have worked in the past to control armyworms, this may be a different year so it will be important to re-check fields after application to be sure you have gotten control, especially those fields that were sprayed on the early side. In addition, barley will be susceptible to attack so both barley and wheat should be checked for armyworms and sawflies.

Alfalfa
If economic levels of alfalfa weevil were present before harvest and your fields were cut instead of sprayed, be sure to check fields within one week of cutting for damage to the regrowth. If temperatures remain cool after cutting there is often not enough “stubble heat” to control populations with early cutting. In some cases, damage to regrowth can be significant. A stubble treatment will be needed if you find 2 or more weevils per stem and the population levels remain steady. The first potato leafhoppers have also migrated to our area so be sure to sample within a week of first cutting. In addition, new seedings should be watched carefully since leafhoppers can quickly damage these plantings. Once the damage is found, yield loss has already occurred. The treatment thresholds for leafhoppers are 20 per 100 sweeps on alfalfa 3 inches or less in height, 50 per 100 sweeps in 4-6 inch tall alfalfa and 100 per 100 sweeps in 7-11 inch tall alfalfa.

Field Corn
We have had a number of reports of cutworms damaging field corn, especially in no-till fields where an insecticide was not used with the burn down herbicide. In many cases worms have been larger and damage was most likely done by the clay backed cutworm. Since enough degree days have accumulated since we saw peak black cutworm moth catches, we should also start to see black cutworm larvae in fields. Be sure to scout all fields from emergence for cutworms. If soil conditions are dry, you will also start to see cutworms damaging plants below ground – either cutting below ground or causing what we term “drill worm injury” (a photo of this type of injury is available here: http://www.ent.iastate.edu/imagegal/lepidoptera/bcutworm/1658.14cutwormlarva.html). If cutworms are feeding below the soil surface, it will be important to treat as late in the day as possible, direct sprays to the base of the plants, and use at least 30 gallons of water per acre.

We have also had an increase in the number of fields with economic levels of slug damage. Although some have used liquid nitrogen applications to help plants grow ahead of the damage, the use of Deadline M-Ps should be considered if weather remains cool and wet and damage is increasing. Please refer to the May 2 Weekly Crop Update for more information on slug biology and management (http://agdev.anr.udel.edu/weeklycropupdate/?p=149).

Lastly, you will also want to watch for true armyworm damage, especially in fields that are planted into a burned-down small grain cover or if volunteer grain was present before planting. With the recent heavy moth flights, these fields may be susceptible to damage. Pyrethroids applied with the burn down herbicides have generally controlled this pest if done close to planting; however, all fields should still be sampled for damage. As a general guideline, a treatment may be needed for armyworms if 25% of the plants are infested with larvae less than one inch long.

Grass Hay Fields
True armyworm moths will also be attracted to grass hay fields so be sure to check those fields as well. Although no thresholds are available, high populations could be found in grass hay fields during the last armyworm outbreak and economic losses occurred in a number of fields. Mustang Max and Warrior are now labeled for armyworm control in grass hay fields. See labels for use rates and restrictions. http://www.cdms.net/LDat/ld8G1002.pdf and http://www.cdms.net/LDat/ld5JH041.pdf

Potato Disease Advisory – May 7, 2008

Friday, May 9th, 2008

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Late Blight Advisory
This is the first report for 2008. If you would like a FAX or email report please call 302-831-4865, or email bobmul@udel.edu. We are using the E-WEATHER SERVICE from SkyBit, Inc. as we have in the past. The service determines specific requested weather parameters (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) based on calculations of data from the nearest National Weather Service stations. This weather data is used in the WISDOM software program for predicting late blight, early blight and making spray recommendations.

Disease Severity Value (DSV) Accumulation as of May 6, 2008 is as follows:
Location: Broad Acres, Zimmerman Farm, Rt. 9, Kent County
Greenrow: April 27
Remember that 18 DSVs is the threshold to begin a spray program.

Date Total DSV Spray Recommendation
4/27- 5/6 7 none

Disease severity values have been accumulating slowly so far this season. The threat of late blight from seed infection is low, but more of a potential problem than last year.

Remember that these values are for potatoes that would have had about 50% emergence and made a row that you can see on or before April 27. If you had potatoes that made a row earlier, there were no severity values calculated for the week prior to April 27. Growers who do not want to rely only on the DSV calculations for scheduling fungicide applications should apply at least 1-2 sprays of mancozeb (Dithane, Manzate, Pencozeb, Manex II) or Bravo (chlorothalonil) before plants canopy or touch down the row. Late blight has not been a problem here in Delaware for many years and unless you have seed from an unknown source the risk of late blight is low. For more fungicide recommendations see the 2008 Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations.

Uniformity in Processing Vegetable Crops

Friday, May 9th, 2008

Gordon Johnson, Extension Ag Agent, Kent Co.; gcjohn@udel.edu

Pea harvest will begin at the end of May; the first pickles have been planted; early plantings of sweet corn and snap beans are in the ground; lima bean planting will begin at the end of the month. A key to profitability in these processing vegetables is having a high percent of the crop at peak when harvest begins. Wide variability in crop maturity will lead to significant quality discounts. To achieve maximum returns and highest quality, the crop should be as uniform as possible. The following are considerations in achieving uniform crops:

1. Choose your most uniform fields to plant processing vegetables. Wide variations in soil conditions will lead to differences in crop growth, development, and maturation. Early plantings should be in fields that warm up evenly, with few, if any, low spots and wet areas. Avoid planting in fields that are prone to crusting. Avoid fields with shading from woods or hedgerows.

2. Tillage operations should be performed as to produce a seedbed that will allow for good seed to soil contact and rapid seed emergence. If soils are dry, irrigate to raise moisture levels prior to seedbed preparation. Make an effort to deal with compaction prior to planting. Variability in field compaction is one of the primary causes for non-uniformity in processing vegetables. Manage field traffic prior to and after planting to avoid additional compaction.

3. Planting operations are critical. Use planters that will deliver seed precisely with uniform spacing and depth. The goal is to have the crop all emerge at once. Late emerging plants will be much less productive and will be behind in maturity. This is particularly important for processing sweet corn. Change planting depth to account for soil conditions (moisture and temperature).

4. Plant entire field sections that are to be harvested together on the same day. Large differences in maturity have been seen in delays of just one day. In spring plantings, plant when a warming trend is predicted. Avoid planting if heavy rains are forecast. Avoid planting in wet soils and in conditions unfavorable to germination and emergence. Do not plant when soil temperatures are below critical values for that crop.

5. Use high quality seed. Seed should be of high vigor and high germination percentage. Handle seed gently so as to preserve quality. This is particularly important with beans.

6. Pay attention to seed protectant chemical choices and adjust seed or furrow/banded applied fungicides and insecticides to match fields and planting dates.

7. Work with processors to match varieties for the planting date as much as possible. Early plantings should be made with cold tolerant varieties. Late plantings should be planted with varieties that can tolerate heat during maturation. Split sets are a particular problem in crops exposed to stress conditions, especially heat and/or water stress.

8. Plant at recommended populations. The interaction of plant density with emergence and germination rate can have a significant effect on uniformity at harvest.

9. Manage irrigation so that water is applied as uniformly as possible. Center pivots and linear move systems are preferred over traveling guns. Have irrigation systems checked for uniformity. Money spent on replacing bad nozzles will be rewarded with more uniform crops. Use irrigation as tool to achieve even emergence in dry conditions and to “soften” crusted soils.

10. Pay attention to soil fertility variations. Processing vegetables will benefit from fields that have been grid sampled, particularly to manage soil pH. Many fields have wide variations in pH and variable rate liming can help to achieve a more uniform crop.

11. Apply all inputs as evenly as possible. This includes fertilizers, fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides. Check fertilizer application equipment, especially starter fertilizer applicators and sidedressing equipment for uniformity.

12. Avoid the use of pesticides that may cause damage to the crop. In particular, herbicides should be used with care. Non-uniform application or incorporation of preemergence herbicides will lead to variable crop emergence; damage by post-emergence herbicides will lead to more variable crops.

13. Weed control is an important part of achieving uniform crops. Map weed populations in fields and target controls to take into account higher weed density areas, or areas with particularly troublesome weeds (spot spraying, hand work or extra cultivation may be necessary in these areas).

14. Cultivation practices should be done at a uniform depth and distance from the row. It is best to use one operator for a given field. Train operators on how to cultivate in a proper manner. Adjust cultivators for differences in soil conditions. Excessive root pruning during cultivation can lead to delays in maturity, additional stress on the crops, and increase the risk of split sets.