Posts Tagged ‘17:10’

WCU Volume 17, Issue 10 – May 22, 2009

Friday, May 22nd, 2009

PDF Version of WCU 17:10 – May 22, 2009

In this issue:

Vegetables
Vegetable Crop Insects
Troubleshooting Sweet Corn Stand and Early Vigor Problems
Potato Disease Advisory
Controlling the Crown Rot Phase of Pepper Phytophthora Blight

Agronomic Crops
Agronomic Crop Insects
Agronomic Crop Disease Update
Postemergence Herbicides with Residual Activity
Grain Marketing Highlights

Announcements
A Day on the Farm in Hockessin- May 30
New Castle Co. Agronomic Crops Twilight Tailgate Session – June 10
On Farm Delaware Food Safety Training – Level I Certification – June 30

Weather

MEETING CANCELED: On Farm Delaware Food Safety Training – Level I Certification

Friday, May 22nd, 2009

Tuesday, June 30, 2009    

Due to lack of registrations, we are going to cancel the On-Farm Food Safety Workshop (Level 1 certification) and the Level 2 Food Safety Workshop scheduled on June 30 and July 7, respectively.

We plan to reschedule for sometime in the fall/winter. We hope the weather stays dry and this will allow you all to get out in the field and do some work!

If you have any questions or would like to schedule a mock food safety audit on your farm, please feel free to call me. My contact information is below.

Best regards,
Anna Stoops
New Castle County Agriculture Extension Agent

University of Delaware Cooperative Extension New Castle County Extension Office
461 Wyoming Rd, Rm 139
Newark, DE 19716

Phone: 302-831-8860
E-Mail: stoops@udel.edu
Fax: 302-831-8934

Agronomic Crops Twilight Tailgate Session

Friday, May 22nd, 2009

Wednesday, June 10, 2009     6:00 p.m.
UD Cooperative Extension Research and Demonstration Area
(3/4 mile east of Armstrong Corner, on Marl Pit Rd. – Road 429, Middletown)

Join your fellow producers and the UD Extension team for an overview of UD’s Weed Science Program-Fall Soybean Herbicide Applications research trial; updates on the latest disease and insect outbreaks and a grain market update. We will wrap things up with the traditional ice cream treat!

Bring a tailgate or a lawn chair.

We will apply for DE Pesticide and Nutrient Management re-certification credits and Certified Crop Advisor credits.

This meeting is free and everyone interested in attending is welcome. Please register by June 5. To register, request more information or if you require special needs assistance for this meeting, please call our office in advance at (302) 831-2506.

See you there!
Anna Stoops, New Castle County Agricultural Extension Agent

A Day on the Farm

Friday, May 22nd, 2009

Saturday, May 30, 2009     10:00 a.m. – 4:00 p.m.
Woodside Farm Creamery, Hockessin, DE
(Corner of Little Baltimore and North Star Rd.)

Free Admission!

Enjoy…
● More than 40 entertaining & educational exhibits
● Interactive Agricultural Demonstrations
● A LIVE Honey Bee Colony
● Hayrides
● Woodland Walks
● “Guiding Paws” Dog Show
& Much More!

Bring your family and friends but, please, no pets.

Join Delaware Cooperative Extension in supporting the Food Bank of Delaware. Bring nonperishable food to our Day on the Farm Food Drive – and help feed Delawareans in need.

For more information contact New Castle County Cooperative Extension at (302) 831-2506 or visit www.woodsidefarmcreamery.com.

Grain Marketing Highlights – May 22, 2009

Friday, May 22nd, 2009

Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu 

U.S. Corn Crop; Sixty-Two Percent Planted
One thing for certain, getting this year’s U.S. corn and soybean crop in the ground is a mixed bag. Overall, a quick glance at Table 1 tells us that 62% vs. the five-year-average planting progress of 85% doesn’t appear to be all that bad, just 8 points behind last year’s pace for the same date. What’s troubling is the rate of progress in the major corn producing states of Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. Illinois, typically the nation’s number two corn producer, reported only 20% of their corn crop planted, compared to the five year average of 92%. Indiana reported corn plantings at 24% as compared to the five year average of 83%. Both states are also well behind last year’s pace. Ohio is 39% planted compared to the average of 82%. Iowa, the nation’s number one corn producer, reported their planting progress to be equal to the average and slightly ahead of last year at 90%. Next week’s planting progress will be critically important to market participants.

Table 1. Corn: Percent Planted, Selected States1

State

Week Ending

2004-2008 Avg.

May 17 2009

May 10 2009

May 17 2008

Percent Planted

CO

63

44

78

74

IL

20

10

73

92

IN

24

11

67

83

IA

90

81

73

90

KS

73

48

84

90

KY

45

39

72

89

MI

41

18

82

77

MN

90

81

62

85

MO

54

39

52

84

NE

93

78

79

88

NC

100

95

97

98

ND

23

7

76

75

OH

39

22

52

82

PA

48

29

56

69

SD

63

29

51

71

TN

79

75

89

95

TX

94

80

93

95

WI

62

43

52

72

18 States

62

48

70

85

1These 18 states planted 92% of last year’s corn acreage.

Worth mentioning is the spring wheat planting progress, which is running well behind last year’s pace and the average (see Table 2). It has been suggested that delayed planting in spring wheat plantings could result in a reduction in ending stocks for all wheat. This in turn could prove to be beneficial to the winter wheat market.

Table 2. Spring Wheat Percent Planted, Selected States1

State

Week Ending

2004-2008 Avg.

May 17 2009

May 10 2009

May 17 2008

Percent Planted

ID

93

85

92

93

MN

34

24

88

90

MT

69

48

92

90

ND

31

13

92

87

SD

94

85

95

97

WA

96

85

97

99

6 States

50

35

92

90

These 6 states planted 98% of last year’s spring wheat acreage.

Market Strategy
The general economy continues to limit possible gains in the commodity markets by the skittishness reflected in economic reports recently coming to bear. Specifically, the U.S. economy is now projected to grow by about one-half the rate previously projected. Further, we are not out of the woods as yet regarding the weather for ’09 crop planting and development. However, we have experienced sizable gains in both old crop and new crop futures prices for corn, soybeans, and wheat since March, led by the soybean market and, more recently, non-commercial interests. USDA’s May projection for ending stocks of U.S. soybeans for the ’08/’09 marketing year was placed at 130 million bushels. That number was no sooner released when the trade started to speculate that U.S. soybean stocks could grow even tighter than the May projection. To some degree, that possibility may depend upon whether we see an acreage shift from corn to soybean production and/or from spring wheat to soybean production. With new crop Dec ’09 corn futures trading at $4.42 per bushel; new crop Nov ’09 soybean futures at $10.15 per bushel; and new crop July ’09 SRW wheat trading at $5.89 per bushel one has to consider advancing new crop pre-harvest sales.

For technical assistance on making grain marketing decisions contact Carl L. German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist.

Postemergence Herbicides with Residual Activity

Friday, May 22nd, 2009

Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu 

The recent rain and favorable conditions for weed growth have resulted in situations where postemergence herbicides are needed earlier than normal. Corn does not form a competitive crop canopy as quickly as soybeans and other crops, so weeds can become established after an early postemergence application and compete with corn. Do not wait to apply postemergence herbicides because early-season weed competition in corn can reduce corn yields.

The strategy is to use a postemergence herbicide that will provide residual weed control. Many of our postemergence herbicides provide little to no residual control (including glyphosate, Ignite, Banvel, Aim). The residual herbicides that are typically used at planting can be applied early postemergence, but they will not control emerged weeds (see the article titled Delayed Soil Applied Herbicide Application in WCU 17:8). The following herbicides provide postemergence and residual weed control: Accent, atrazine, Beacon, Callisto, Hornet, Option, Resolve, and Sandea.

Postemergence Herbicides That Can Provide Residual Weed Control

Herbicide Premixes1 Strength Weakness
Accent Steadfast some grasses, pigweed crabgrass, limited spectrum of control
atrazine numerous broadleaf weeds; residual control depends on rate grasses, triazine-resistant biotypes
Beacon NorthStar pigweed grasses, limited spectrum of control
Callisto Halex GT broadleaf weeds (Halex GT contains Dual for grass control) grasses, ragweed, morningglory
Option Equip some grasses crabgrass, limited spectrum of control
Resolve Steadfast, Basis some grasses, pigweed, lambsquarters crabgrass, large-seeded broadleaf weeds
Sandea Yukon lambsquarters, nutsedge, pigweed, ragweed grasses
Hornet Sure Start SureStart is broad-spectrum, grass and broadleaves (contains acetochlor2) morningglory

1The premixes of Halex GT and SureStart significantly improve the spectrum of control over Callisto or Hornet, respectively.

2Sure Start will not control emerged grasses.

Nightshade is a species that can emerge for an extended period of time and fields infested with it should include a residual herbicide when treated postemergence. Atrazine and Callisto are the best two options for residual control of eastern black nightshade.

Agronomic Crop Disease Update – May 22, 2009

Friday, May 22nd, 2009

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Corn
Pythium seedling damping-off as well as Fusarium seedling blight have been diagnosed from several fields that were very wet and the corn took from 10-14 days to emerge. The cool wet weather contributed to the widespread damping-off problem we are seeing. The amount of disease experienced depended on when the corn was planted in relation to the rains. With the warmer temperatures and more normal soil moisture, there should be no problems replanting with treated seed. No additional soil fungicide treatments should be needed if soil moisture is normal at replanting.

Barley
After evaluating the variety trials in all three counties I can report that there are low levels of the spot blotch form of net blotch, scald, and powdery mildew on susceptible varieties. ‘Thoroughbred’ varies in the amount of powdery mildew infection but it has been high overall. Fusarium head blight or scab was also seen on two barley varieties, Nomini and FS 950. The incidence was fairly low (3-5%) and the severity was low as well, maybe only 10-15% of the head was infected. Head scab in barley is a rare occurrence on Delmarva.

 Fusarium head blight on barley

Fusarium head blight on barley.

Wheat
If this weather continues we may have missed a potential scab problem in wheat. So far scab has not been seen. Low levels of powdery mildew and tan spot were seen while evaluating the wheat variety trial.

Agronomic Crop Insects – May 22, 2009

Friday, May 22nd, 2009

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Alfalfa
When checking regrowth for damage from weevils, be sure to also consider damage from adults. If economic levels were present before cutting and no spray was applied, both adults and larvae can hold back re-growth. With the cool conditions we have had, there would not have been enough “stubble” heat to control the weevils with a cutting. Potato leafhoppers are now present in fields so be sure to sample on a weekly basis after the first cutting. Once the damage is found, yield loss has already occurred. The treatment thresholds are 20 per 100 sweeps on alfalfa 3 inches or less in height, 50 per 100 sweeps in 4-6 inch tall alfalfa and 100 per 100 sweeps in 7-11 inch tall alfalfa.

Field Corn
Slugs continue to be the main pest of concern in many fields. Options to reduce damage and allow plants to grow ahead of the damage include the use of Deadline M-Ps or night time applications of 30% liquid nitrogen when plants are dry (the rate used in past years was 20 gallons per acre of 30% N on corn in the spike to one-leaf stage and the mix was cut 50/50 with water to reduce – not eliminate — plant injury). Also, slugs seem to be most active on the plants between midnight and 3 AM so applications of nitrogen have been most effective when applied between those hours. The best control with the Deadline M-Ps has been observed when applications were made and there was at least one day of sunny weather after an application. In general slugs stop feeding in 2-3 hours even though it may take the slugs 2-3 days to die. Last season, we also had reports of good results in commercial fields where a potash application was needed and slugs were also present in the field. It was probably effective due to its high salt index. Remember that when it comes to slug management all of the available control tactics only reduce the slug activity – buying time to enable the crop to outgrow the problem.

Research conducted by Galen Dively from the University of Maryland in 2003 indicated that “populations of five or more slugs around each plant prior to the 3-­leaf stage may be economic, especially if injury is heavy, plant growth is slow, and cool, wet conditions prevail. If the weather turns hot and dry, 10 or more slugs per plant may be tolerated if the seedlings reach the 3-leaf stage. Generally, if a heavily infested field reaches the 3-leaf stage without severe seedling mortality, the crop has survived the critical period and should outgrow further slug injury, regardless of the population pressure.”

Small Grains
We continue to find armyworms, sawflies and cereal leaf beetles in barley and wheat fields so be sure to check fields as soon as it is dry enough in the day to do a good job scouting. Population levels remain variable throughout the state so scouting fields will be the only way to determine if an economic level is present. Before treatment, be sure to check all labels for the days allowed between last application and harvest.

Soybeans
As the earliest beans emerge, be sure to watch carefully for slug damage. Remember, if you had a problem last year, the slugs will still be present in fields this year and can quickly damage soybeans as plants emerge. Be sure to also watch fields carefully for bean leaf beetles and grasshoppers. Early detection and control of small grasshoppers is necessary to achieve control. Numerous products are labeled for grasshopper control including a number of pyrethroids, dimethoate, Lorsban, Orthene 97 and Sevin XLR. As a reminder, OP insecticides (like dimethoate or Lorsban) cannot be combined with SU/ALS herbicides (like Harmony GT). Since other materials may also state restrictions regarding combinations of insecticide and herbicides, you should be sure to check all labels carefully before combining insecticides and herbicides. Combinations of certain formulations, especially emulsifiable concentrates (ECs), can cause significant phytoxicity. Also, it should be noted that the use of Furadan on soybeans has been cancelled. Please refer to the Federal Register notice from EPA regarding existing stocks http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/reregistration/carbofuran/carbofuran_noic.htm#cancel.

Controlling the Crown Rot Phase of Pepper Phytophthora Blight

Friday, May 22nd, 2009

Andy Wyenandt, Assistant Extension Specialist in Vegetable Pathology, Rutgers University; wyenandt@aesop.rutgers.edu

To control the crown rot phase of Phytophthora blight in pepper apply 1.0 pt Ridomil Gold 4E/A or 1.0 qt Ultra Flourish 2E/A (mefenoxam, 4), or MetaStar metalaxyl, (4) at 4.0 to 8.0 pt 2E/A. Apply broadcast prior to planting or in a 12-16 inch band over the row before or after transplanting. Make two additional post planting directed applications with 1 pint/A Ridomil Gold 4E or 1 qt/A Ultra Flourish 2E to 6 to 10 inches of soil on either side of the plants at 30-day intervals. Use the formula “Calibration for Changing from Broadcast to Band Application” on page E6 in the Pest Management Section of the Delaware Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations to determine amount of Ridomil Gold needed per acre when band applications are made. When using polyethylene mulch, apply Ridomil Gold 4E at the above rates and timing by injection through the trickle irrigation system. Dilute Ridomil Gold 4E prior to injecting to prevent damage to the injector pump.

Potato Disease Advisory – May 21, 2009

Friday, May 22nd, 2009

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Late Blight Advisory
Location: Shadybrook Farms, Little Creek, DE (Kent County)
Greenrow: May 1

Date DSV Total DSV Spray Recommendation
5/3 -5/6   41  
5/7 2 43  
5/8 1 44  
5/9- 5/13 0 44 10-day spray interval
5/14 1 45 10-day spray interval
5/15 3 48 10-day spray interval
5/16 2 50  7-day spray interval
5/16- 5/20 0 50  7-day spray interval

Fungicide sprays are recommended if no applications have been made this season. Apply sprays of mancozeb (Dithane, Manzate, Pencozeb, Manex II), Gavel or Bravo (chlorothalonil) now and then repeat before plants canopy down the row. See the Delaware Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations for more information on fungicides.

Fortunately late blight has not been a problem here in Delaware for many years and unless you have seed from an unknown source the risk of late blight is low.

Please note: I have reversed my decision to use Blightcast from Skybit to predict late blight. I have used Wisdom in the past and all my original data calibration for predicting late blight was done with Wisdom, and it has worked as best as I know, so I will continue with it this season as well. Sorry for any confusion this may have caused. You may notice that the DSVs are higher which is due to the way that Wisdom calculates these values compared to other programs.