Posts Tagged ‘17:16’

Grain Marketing Highlights – July 3, 2009

Thursday, July 2nd, 2009

Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu

Tuesday, June 30, 2009, USDA Planted Acreage:
Corn Planted Acreage Up 1% from 2008
Soybean Acreage Up 2%
All Wheat Acreage Down 5%
Corn planted area for all purposes in 2009 is estimated at 87.0 million acres, up 1% from last year but 7% below 2007. This is the second largest planted acreage since 1946, behind 2007. Farmers reported that 97% of the intended corn acreage had been planted at the time of the survey interview compared with the 10-year average of 98%.

Soybean planted area for 2009 is estimated at a record high 77.5 million acres, up 2% from last year. Area for harvest, at 76.5 million acres, is up 3% from 2008, and will be the largest harvested area on record, if realized. Compared with last year, planted acreage increased by 200,000 acres or more in Kansas, Mississippi, Missouri, North Dakota, and South Dakota. The largest decrease is in Nebraska, down 400,000 acres from 2008, as many farmers switched to corn this year. Record high planted acreage is estimated in Kansas, New York, North Dakota, and Pennsylvania.

All wheat planted area is estimated at 59.8 million acres, down 5% from 2008. The 2009 winter wheat planted area, at 43.4 million acres, is 6% below last year but up 1% from the previous estimate. Of this total, about 31.4 million acres are Hard Red Winter, 8.4 million acres are Soft Red Winter, and 3.6 million acres are White Winter. Area planted to other spring wheat for 2009 is estimated at 13.8 million acres, down 3% from 2008. Of this total, about 13.1 million acres are Hard Red Spring wheat. Durum planted area for 2009 is estimated at 2.56 million acres, down 6% from the previous year.

USDA Quarterly Grain Stocks:
Corn Stocks Up 6% from June 2008
Soybean Stocks Down 12%
All Wheat Stocks Up 118%
Corn stocks in all positions on June 1, 2009 totaled 4.27 billion bushels, up 6% from June 1, 2008. Of the total stocks, 2.21 billion bushels are stored on farms, up 12% from a year earlier. Off-farm stocks, at 2.06 billion bushels, are up slightly from a year ago. The March – May 2009 indicated disappearance is 2.69 billion bushels, compared with 2.83 billion bushels during the same period last year.

Soybeans stored in all positions on June 1, 2009 totaled 597 million bushels, down 12% from June 1, 2008. On-farm stocks totaled 226 million bushels, down slightly from a year ago. Off-farm stocks, at 371 million bushels, are down 18% from the previous year. Indicated disappearance for the March – May 2009 quarter totaled 705 million bushels, down 7% from the same period a year earlier.

All wheat stored in all positions on June 1, 2009 totaled 667 million bushels, up 118% from a year ago. On-farm stocks are estimated at 141 million bushels, up 449% from last year. Off-farm stocks, at 526 million bushels, are up 88% from a year ago. The March – May 2009 indicated disappearance is 373 million bushels, down 7% from the same period a year earlier.

Summary
The long awaited June 30 Planted Acreage and Quarterly Grain Stocks reports released today contained a few surprises that will keep these markets reeling. U.S. corn acreage did not decrease as many had expected, it actually increased by 2.41 million acres from the March planting intentions report. The other major surprise concerns the level of soybean stocks likely to be on hand at the end of the ’08/’09 marketing year, now indicated to be something north of the 110 million bushel mark.

The price implications for this report are bearish for corn, SRW wheat, and soybeans. The primary driver of these markets now becomes the weather. It will now take a weather scare to have any hope of having another opportunity to advance pre-harvest sales for new crop corn and soybeans.

USDA Export Sales Report
Pre-report estimates had weekly corn export sales at 500,000 to 900,000 metric tons (19.7 to 35.4 million bushels) combined old-crop and new-crop sales. The weekly report showed export sales of 1,155,100 metric tons (45.5 million bushels) in old-crop corn, well above 5.4 million bushels needed to meet USDA’s projection of 1.75 billion bushels, while new-crop sales were 4.6 million bushels. Total shipments of 29.2 million bushels were well below what was needed this week. This report should be viewed as neutral to bullish.

Pre-report estimates for soybeans ranged between 3.7 to 15.6 million bushels. The weekly report showed export sales of 7.1 million bushels in old-crop, above the amount needed to meet USDA’s revised projection of 1.25 bb. New-crop sales were reported at 9.2 million bushels. Total shipments of 14.2 million bushels were above what was needed this week. This report should be viewed as bullish.

Pre-report export sales estimates for wheat ranged between 7.3 to 14.7 million bushels. The weekly report showed export sales of 8.9 million bushels, below the 15.3 million bushels needed to stay on pace with USDA’s projection of 900 million bushels. Shipments of 13.5 million bushels were below what was needed this week. This report should be viewed as bearish.

Control of Horseweed Prior to Double-Cropped Soybeans

Thursday, July 2nd, 2009

Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu

A number of small grain fields had lots of horseweed plants at harvest time and these fields will be going into soybeans over the next week. The best time to control these horseweed plants is before planting. We had a small trial last year comparing control options and only one treatment provided good control (no treatment provided 100% control). The best treatment was Ignite 280 at 36 fl oz/A; we only had one rate of Ignite in this trial. Also included in the trial was glyphosate alone, with Envive, Valor XLT, Canopy, and FirstRate. In all treatments, there was significant injury and growth reduction of the horseweed, but with time they began to regrow. Regrowth was less with the Ignite treatments compared to all other treatments.

Corn and Corn Fungicides

Thursday, July 2nd, 2009

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

The following was written by Dr. Arv Graubaskas, Extension Field Crops Plant Pathologist at the University of Maryland in his Maryland Field Crop Disease Notes. The issue of applying fungicides to corn when part of the field is replanted is addressed. This question has been asked and this is the best answer we know.

In some parts of the state the earliest planted corn is close to developing a tassel. There has also been a lot of corn that had to be replanted due to drowning. In many other cases corn was only recently planted because the soil finally dried out enough to get equipment onto the field. There is thus a tremendous range of growth stages of corn out there and in many cases in the same field. Considering the weather pattern is still pretty wet the legitimate question of whether or not a fungicide program is warranted is raised.

First don’t get sold on the plant health or plant physiology response to strobilurin fungicides (Headline, Quadris, and to a lesser extent Quilt and Stratego) alone. Key word here is alone. The usual sales pitch involves stating that millions of acres have been treated and the average response has been 8, 10 or even 15 bu/A. These averages include cases that had significant foliar diseases as well as cases with little or no disease. These fungicides are great disease management tools and when diseases like gray leaf spot are significant will outperform other classes of fungicides. The performance of these fungicides when diseases are clearly yield limiting is so outstanding that it skews the average response number.

Let me illustrate with my data from last season. I had 16 replicated “trials” across the state across a range of crop histories, planting dates and hybrids that compared untreated corn vs. a strobilurin fungicide. The average response across these trials was 7.3 bu/A, but in only five of these trials was the positive (yield beneficial) response statistically significant. More importantly in those five trials gray leaf spot was a serious problem and the actual responses to the fungicide in those five cases ranged from 24 to 38 bu/A. In other words, where I did not have enough gray leaf spot to cause losses and thus the fungicide could only provide a yield advantage through alteration of plant physiology the average response was -0.7 bu/A. The overall average looks good but it is skewed by the cases that really benefited which were those cases where the fungicide primarily worked as a disease control agent. The plant physiology or plant health type effect occurs in concert with disease control to often outperform other classes of fungicides when diseases are a problem. Where there is no disease the plant physiology side benefits have little or no effect on yield or stand on a consistent basis. The bottom line is an insurance program where there is no need for insurance will only cost you money. Use a fungicide when you have a real risk of a foliar disease. The highest risk of getting gray leaf spot, the primary foliar disease of corn, involves three factors: 1) a susceptible corn hybrid, 2) no-tilling corn into corn stubble, and 3) a relatively wet season.

There is one additional factor that needs to be considered regarding fungicides in corn, especially this season. It gets us back to the comment that there is quite a range of growth stages out there and in many cases in the same field. Fungicides applied by air in a fullgrown corn crop generally perform better if surfactants are used. The surfactants help the fungicide to penetrate the canopy and be better distributed throughout the canopy. Arrested ear syndrome, where the development to corn ears is damaged resulting in a percentage of small malformed ears, has been associated with fungicides applied with a non-ionic surfactant (NIS) or sometimes other products (certain formulations of tankmixed products) especially if the corn is in the late vegetative stages of development just before tassel. Most of the damage seems to be associated with NIS surfactants but the fungicide formulation and tank-mixed products are not completely exonerated. It is therefore important that if one decides on using a fungicide that it is applied at or after tassel formation is completed. If it is close or there are parts of the stand that are not yet in tassel then NIS surfactants should not be used and be wary of any tank-mix products. One final comment on fungicides in corn, these products have not been shown to directly reduce stalk rots. Fungicides affect stalk rots and therefore improve stand, when there is a foliar disease. There is no direct action of the fungicides applied at or near tassel on the stalk rot pathogens that develop much later in the season. However, significant loss of effective leaf area from foliar diseases predisposes plants to stalk rots. Therefore, when there is a foliar disease problem and you manage it with a fungicide you get the additional benefit of reducing stalk rots.

The bottom line is fungicides have been proven to be excellent disease management tools for foliar diseases in corn and have an indirect effect on lodging due to stalk rots of the crop. The additional benefits of strobilurin fungicides are the reason they often outperform other fungicide classes with regard to yield when diseases are an issue. They should be considered when the risk of a foliar disease is high. Otherwise they are expensive insurance with a relatively low chance of a return if significant foliar diseases do not develop.

Soybean Cyst Nematode Diagnosed in Soybean and Snap Bean

Thursday, July 2nd, 2009

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

SCN was diagnosed this past week in soybeans and snapbeans. These two hosts are the only crops that are affected in the region. If you see stunting and yellowing, carefully dig up the affected plants with a shovel or trowel and gently shake the soil from the roots. White or yellow females will be seen attached to the infected roots if present. They are small, much smaller than the nitrogen fixing nodules, but can be seen with the naked eye. A 10x hand lens makes the task much easier to see the lemon shaped females. Don’t presume that all the stunting that can be seen is due to water-logged soils or compaction. If it is not clear what the problem is or if cysts cannot be seen, a soil sample of the affected area can be taken and checked for SCN or other nematodes. Test bags and more information is available at the County Extension offices and forms and info at the Plant Diagnostic Lab site at http://ag.udel.edu/extension/pdc/pdf/Nematode_Assay_taking_samples.pdf.

soybean cyst nematode

Wheat Disease Update – July 3, 2009

Thursday, July 2nd, 2009

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Scab
There have been reports of wheat being rejected at the elevator for excessive vomitoxin (DON) levels in the grain due to head scab infection. The following was written by Dr. Arv Gybauskas from the Univ. of Maryland about blending good grain with contaminated grain. “The question arises can you blend the infected seed lots with clean seed to avoid a complete loss of the harvested seed. Blending to dilute DON levels is very tricky. In the EU it is even illegal once the grain has left the farm and is tested by an elevator or mill. The problem is DON is not uniformly distributed in the seed and without testing and complete mixing of truck-loads of seed you could still end up with a load that could be rejected. In that case you would even have lost the good seed. A better solution, although not an easy one nor is it a guarantee to make the seed marketable, is to further clean out the seed and have it tested again.

To avoid getting into this jam next time, it will take a complete management program that includes rotation, selection of varieties that have some resistance and only recommended fungicides applied when needed. We will present data and more details on these choices as we finalize the results from research trials this season.”

Grain Testing for Vomitoxin (DON)
The Delaware Department of Agriculture is conducting testing for DON in grower submitted samples. Growers should submit a 2 lb sample in a plastic zip-lock bag to the DDA in Dover (2320 S. Dupont Highway, Dover DE 19901). The sample should be clearly labeled with your name, billing address and telephone number. The costs are:

Vomitoxin test = $40/sample (DDA will provide a certificate that certifies the testing procedure). If the grower or their insurance company requires a USDA/FIGIS grade certificate, they will need to locate a laboratory that has that certification.

Grain grade factors (e.g. moisture, test weight, damage) = $15/sample

The link below describes the exact ELISA test that DDA will be conducting: http://www.neogen.com/FoodSafety/pdf/ProdInfo/Page_24.pdf.

Any questions please call the DDA Seed Lab at (302) 698-4590.

How to Get a Good Representative Sample for Testing
The reliability of testing is greatly influenced by the sampling procedure. To achieve a more accurate DON level estimate, it is critical that the collected grain sample be representative of an entire truckload or bin of grain. Grain and other particles separate based on particle size and density as it flows into a truck or bin. Typically, the smaller, denser material is near the center and the larger, lighter material is near the outside of the container. Therefore, it is expected that there will be a variation in the concentration of affected kernels in various portions of a truckload. In addition, since DON levels can vary greatly between kernels of similar size and density, it is important to take several samples from various locations within the load. Probe samples should not be taken from the center or outer portions of a load because these areas do not reflect a cross section of the load. The samples also must represent spatially distinct areas of the load. The probe should collect the sample from as much of the entire depth of the truck as possible. Four to five probes per truck are recommended. To obtain an accurate sample from an end gate grain stream, samples from the entire width and depth of the grain stream should be collected, not just the first and last portion of the load. A Pelican sampler or other sampling device aids in proper sample collection. At least four samples of the entire grain stream should be collected at intervals to represent spatially different portions of the load. Information from NDSU fact sheet “DON (Vomitoxin) in Wheat: Questions and Answers” http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/plantsci/pests/pp1302.pdf.

Agronomic Crop Insects – July 3, 2009

Thursday, July 2nd, 2009

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Alfalfa
We have seen an increase in potato leafhopper populations this past week so be sure to sample fields for adults and nymphs. The treatment thresholds are 20 per 100 sweeps on alfalfa 3 inches or less in height, 50 per 100 sweeps in 4-6 inch tall alfalfa and 100 per 100 sweeps in 7-11 inch tall alfalfa.

Soybeans
We can find a number of defoliators in full season soybean fields including grasshoppers, green cloverworm, painted ladies, oriental beetles and bean leaf beetles. The predominate defoliator in many fields is the green cloverworm. Larvae are light green with three pairs of white stripes running the length of the body. In addition to the three pairs of legs near the head, they have three pairs of fleshy legs near the middle of the body, and one additional pair at the end of the body. Larvae wiggle vigorously when disturbed. Smaller larvae may drop from the leaf when disturbed. Young larvae skeletonize the underside of the leaf. Older larvae chew irregular shaped holes in the leaves and can eat all of the leaf except large veins. Although populations of green cloverworm generally increase in number from July through September, if the weather turns dry, we could see an earlier increase in numbers. Fungal pathogens often crash populations; however, under dry weather conditions this will not occur. As a reminder, double crop soybeans can not tolerate as much defoliation as full season beans so be sure to watch newly emerged fields carefully, especially for grasshoppers.

We are also seeing an increase in thrips and leafhopper populations in seedling stage soybeans. Although no specific thresholds are available, information from the Midwest indicates that controls may be needed for thrips if you find 8 per leaflet and plant damage is occurring. You will want to reduce this threshold to 4 per leaflet if plants are stressed. As a general guideline, a control may be needed for leafhoppers if you see plant damage and you find 4 leafhoppers per sweep in stressed fields and 8 per sweep in non-stressed fields.

We have also started our soybean aphid survey in all three counties. No aphids have been detected so far. In states where aphids overwinter in the Midwest (remember they are still considered a migratory pest for us) they are reporting levels that are similar to populations found during outbreak years. As a reminder, we see more problems with soybean aphids during cool growing seasons.

Powdery Mildew Identified on Tomatoes

Thursday, July 2nd, 2009

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

The rain we have had has also been favorable for powdery mildew which is a minor disease of tomato in fields that have not been sprayed. It is more common in backyard gardens and can result in defoliation. For commercial growers apply Rally or Cabrio at the first sign of disease and repeat every 14 days.

Powdery mildew on tomatoPowdery mildew on tomato

Cucurbit Downy Mildew Update – July 3, 2009

Thursday, July 2nd, 2009

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Downy mildew on cucumber continues to spread in North Carolina and is now present in Ohio. There was a new report of downy mildew from Virginia Beach, VA this week. Although the winds are blowing this way, spore survival is not likely and the risk of downy today, Thursday, is low. Be sure to check the forecast at the CDM ipmPIPE website http://cdm.ipmpipe.org for Friday and the weekend.

Bacterial Brown Spot Seen in Limas

Thursday, July 2nd, 2009

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Bacterial brown spot was identified in pole beans as well as a commercial field of baby limas this week. Brown spot is usually only seen in wet seasons. The reddish-brown bordered irregular spots look very much like a fungus infection on lima beans. Levels of infection will vary with the heavier infections occurring in the lower canopy. Splashing rain will move the bacteria around as will cultivating when the foliage is wet. We have no data on effectiveness of copper fungicides to reduce spread or the potential for plant damage and yield reductions for this disease here in DE because it occurs so infrequently at this level of infection. It usually can be found at very low levels most years during wet periods. The bacteria are known to contaminate seed and be found on weed hosts where it can spread during rain storms to beans. Populations can be reduced on the plants with applications of fixed copper fungicides such as Kocide 3000, Champ DF, and others. The disease is caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.

bacterial brown spot on baby lima bean

Bacterial brown spot on baby lima bean

Are You Over-Watering or Under-Watering Your Drip Irrigated Vegetables with Plastic Mulch?

Thursday, July 2nd, 2009

Gordon Johnson, Extension Ag Agent, Kent Co.; gcjohn@udel.edu

One of the most common problems in drip irrigated vegetables with plastic mulch is over-irrigating or under-irrigating. The following are guidelines from the Delaware Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations guide:

“Calculating the length of time required to apply a specific depth of water with a trickle irrigation system is more difficult than with sprinkler systems. Unlike sprinkler systems, trickle systems apply water to only a small portion of the total crop acreage. Usually, a fair assumption to make is that the mulched width approximates the extent of the plant root zone and should be used to calculate system run-times. Table C-4 has been prepared to calculate the length of time required to apply one inch of water with a trickle irrigation system, based on the trickle tube flow rate and the mulched width. The use of this table requires that the trickle system be operating at the pressure listed in the manufacturers specifications.”

Hours Required to Apply 1 Inch Water to Mulched Area (Table C-4 from the Delaware Commercial Vegetable Recommendations)

Trickle Tube Flow Rate

Mulched Width (ft)

gph/100 ft

gpm/100 ft

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

8

0.13

15.5

19.5

23.5

27.0

31.0

10

0.17

12.5

16.5

18.5

22.0

25.0

12

0.20

10.5

13.0

15.5

18.0

21.0

16

0.27

8.0

10.0

11.5

13.5

15.5

18

0.30

7.0

8.5

10.5

12.0

14.0

20

0.33

6.0

8.0

9.5

11.0

12.5

24

0.40

5.0

6.5

8.0

9.0

10.5

30

0.50

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.5

36

0.60

3.5

4.5

5.0

6.0

7.0

40

0.67

3.0

4.0

4.5

5.5

6.0

42

0.70

3.0

4.0

4.5

5.0

6.0

48

0.80

2.5

3.0

4.0

4.5

5.0

50

0.83

2.5

3.0

4.0

4.5

5.0

54

0.90

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

60

1.00

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

“On coarse-textured soils, applying an inch of water to the mulched width may not be effective. Because water is not held in large pore spaces, it moves below the plant root zone, carrying nutrients and pesticides beyond the reach of the plant roots. Table C-5 has been prepared to calculate the maximum recommended irrigation period for trickle irrigation systems. The irrigation periods listed are based on the assumption that 50 percent of the available water in the plant root zone is depleted. Soil texture directly influences the water-holding capacity of soils and, therefore, the depth reached by irrigation water.”

Maximum Irrigation Periods (Hours) for Trickle Irrigation Systems to Result in a Water Infiltration Depth of 12-18 Inches (Table C-5 from the Delaware Commercial Vegetable Recommendations)

Trickle Tube Flow Rate

Soil Texture

gph/100 ft

gpm/100 ft


Sand

Loamy
Sand

Sandy
Loam

Clay
Loam

Silt
Loam

12

0.2

5.0

8.0

11.5

15.5

17.5

18

0.3

3.5

5.0

7.5

10.5

11.5

24

0.4

2.5

4.0

5.5

8.0

8.5

30

0.5

2.0

3.0

4.5

6.5

7.0

36

0.6

1.5

2.5

4.0

5.0

6.0

42

0.7

1.5

2.0

3.0

4.5

5.0

48

0.8

1.5

2.0

3.0

4.0

4.5

Choosing the right emitter spacing for the crop that you are growing is very important. Melons grown on wide spacings are quite different than crops, such as peppers, grown on double rows with tight spacings. The emitter needs to be close enough to planting holes so that young transplants can survive without having to wet the bed so much that you cause leaching. In very sandy soils, this is even more important because the zone of wetting is much narrower.

As to how much to irrigate, during the initial growth phase after seedling establishment and up to the time that plants cover the beds, one inch or less of water per week is generally sufficient based on a mulched acre. As plants reach their full size, this will need to be increased based on the crop. Some crops will need over two inches per week at peak in mid-summer. Irrigation will need to be run multiple days per week to achieve this and on very sandy soils, this will require more management attention so as not to water out of the root zone. Irrigation can be twice daily, daily, every 2 days, or every 3 days depending on the soil type during peak growth.

Estimating crop needs based on evapotranspiration data will be necessary to determine the amount of time to run the drip system under plastic mulch, especially at peak usage. This is complicated by trying to assess the impact of rainfall and water infiltrating under the plastic from row middles. To better manage irrigation under plastic, it is recommended to install or use portable moisture sensors to determine moisture status of the plant root zone under mulch. The standard has been the tensiometer but there are several other moisture sensors that will work equally well or better. Irrigate when available soil moisture is depleted 30-50% based on sensor readings.