Posts Tagged ‘17:22’

WCU Volume 17, Issue 22 – August 14, 2009

Friday, August 14th, 2009

PDF Version of WCU 17:22 – August 14, 2009

In this issue:

Vegetables
Vegetable Crop Insects
FDA Has Released Draft Food Safety Guidelines for Melons, Leafy Greens, and Tomatoes
Lima Bean Disease Update
Basil Downy Mildew Found in Delaware
Downy Mildew on Cucurbits
Pumpkin Plants Turn Ugly in Just a Few Days

Agronomic Crops
Agronomic Crop Insects
Soybean Rust Update
Grain Marketing Highlights

Announcements
Soil Health and Vegetable Crops Twilight Meeting – August 27
“Raising Farm Profits” Farmer Bus Tour – Aug. 31-Sep. 1
Equine Pasture Walk – September 29

Weather

Equine Pasture Walk

Friday, August 14th, 2009

Tuesday, September 29, 2009     5:30-7:30 p.m.
University of Delaware Webb Farm
508 S. Chapel St., Newark, DE

Come and meet University of Delaware’s new Equine Extension Specialist, Dr. Carissa Wickens. Learn about rotational grazing and management practices used on-farm at UD. Get help with decisions regarding pasture nutrient needs and the rising cost of fertilizers and amendments. Learn about NRCS programs available to help you and your farming operation.

Experts will be on hand from the University of Delaware and the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) to answer your questions!

This meeting is free and everyone interested in attending is welcome. Please bring a folding chair.

Nutrient management and CCA credits will be available.

Please preregister by September 25. To register, request more information or if you require special needs assistance for this meeting, please call our office at (302) 831-2506.

See you there!
Anna Stoops, New Castle County Ag. Extension Agent

“Raising Farm Profits” Farmer Bus Tour

Friday, August 14th, 2009

Monday, Aug. 31-Tuesday, Sep. 1, 2009

The goal of this tour is to provide farmers a chance to learn from successful and innovative farming ventures in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. There are many options for farmers to increase their profits and many obstacles to overcome. Hands-on demonstrations and first-hand explanations can help people see the results for themselves. The stops chosen for the tour offer diverse and practical examples of what farmers can do to help their bottom line while using sustainable practices and improving community relations. Major focuses of the tour include direct marketing, value-added products, soil conservation and season extension.

The cost for the tour is $25 and includes food and lodging.

For additional information call (302) 857-6462 or go to http://www.rec.udel.edu/update09/bustour.pdf.

Soil Health and Vegetable Crops Twilight Meeting: Incorporating Soil Health Management into and IPM Program for Vegetables

Friday, August 14th, 2009

Thursday, August 27, 2009     5:30 p.m.
Carvel Research and Education Center
16483 County Seat Hwy., Georgetown, DE
(meet at the grove)

All vegetable growers, field personnel, and vegetable crop advisors are invited to attend a twilight meeting dedicated to soil health and vegetable crops.  With tighter rotations, soil health is major concern with vegetable production.  This twilight meeting will focus on incorporating soil health management into an IPM program for vegetables.

You will see several demonstration plots including:

● Comparisons of compost types and rates in plasticulture vegetable production and effects of compost on soil health.

● Comparisons of several sorghum species as summer green manure crops and biofumigants for impacts on soil health and vegetable crop production.

● Evaluation of mustard family species as cover crops and biofumigants for impacts on soil health.

● Evaluation of multiple plantings of cover crops with biofumigant properties on soil health.

Participants will also do some hands-on soil health assessments.

UD specialists, agents, and associates will be on hand to talk about past and current research in relation to soil health and vegetable crop production as well as best practices to incorporate to maintain soil health on vegetable farms.

Please call (302) 730-4000 to let us know if you will be attending or email gcjohn@udel.edu.

Grain Marketing Highlights

Friday, August 14th, 2009

Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu

It All Hinges on Weather
Results are now in for the long awaited August 12 USDA Supply and Demand estimates. On first glance one would have to think no harm done. If USDA had not increased total use for U.S. corn by 350 million bushels to offset the impact of the projected production increase then this report would have been viewed as more negative for corn prices. If USDA had not decreased the yield estimate for soybean production then that would have cast a negative tone to new crop soybean prices. Considering the fact that those two things did not happen, one could go so far as to believe that this report was somewhat bullish and not just for soybeans. My reasoning is simply that ending stocks for corn could have been closer to 2 billion bushels than this report suggests. It is important to bear in mind that the numbers in this report are estimates. The accuracy of these estimates will not be known until harvest. 

Corn Analysis
U.S. corn production is now forecast at 12.761 billion bushels, 471 million bushels larger than the July estimate. USDA re-surveyed planted acres in seven states, leaving ‘09 U.S. corn planted acres at 87 million. The estimate for harvested acres was reduced by 100,000 acres to 80 million. The estimated yield was increased 6.1 bushels per acre from last month, now placed at 159.5 bushels per acre. Total supply for the ‘09/‘10 marketing year was only increased 421 million bushels due to a 50 million bushel decrease in the estimate for beginning stocks from one month ago.  

On the demand side, the estimate for feed and residual use was increased 100 million bushels; food, seed and industrial use was increased 100 million bushels; and the estimate for ethanol for fuel use was increased 100 million bushels  placing total domestic use at 10.775 billion bushels, a 200 million bushel increase from last month. The estimate for U.S. corn exports was increased 150 million bushels bringing total use to a projected 12.875 billion bushels, a 350 million bushel increase in projected corn use from last month. Ending stocks for U.S. corn, now projected at 1.621 billion bushels, are 71 million bushels larger than a month ago.  The season average farm price was reduced by 25 cents per bushel on both ends of the price range, now estimated at $3.10 to $3.90 per bushel.

World ending corn stocks are now projected at 141.49 million metric tons for the ‘09/‘10 marketing year and 144.08 MMT for the ‘08/‘09 marketing year. Both estimates were increased from last month.

Soybean Analysis
U.S. soybean production is now projected at 3.199 billion bushels, 60 million bushels less than a month ago. Planted acres were increased by 200,000 acres from last month, now placed at 77.7 million acres. Harvested acres were increased by 300,000 acres from last month. The yield per acre was decreased 9/10th of a bushel and is now estimated at 41.7 bushels per acre. The reduction in projected U.S. soybean production resulted in total soybean supply being decreased by 60 million bushels, now placed at 3.320 billion bushels.

Soybean demand was reduced 10 million bushels for crushings; 10 million bushels for exports; and 1 million bushels for residual placing the August projection for total use at 3.109 billion bushels, 31 million bushels less than a month ago. Ending stocks for U.S. soybeans were reduced 40 million bushels from last month, now projected at 210 million bushels. Ending stocks for the old crop were left unchanged at 110 million bushels. The season average farm price was increased by 10 cents per bushel on both ends of the price range, now placed at $8.40 to $10.40 per bushel.

World ending stocks for soybeans are projected at 50.32 million metric tons for the ‘09/‘10 marketing year and 41 MMT for ‘08/‘09. Both estimates were lowered from last month.

Wheat Analysis
The estimate for U.S. wheat production was increased by 72 million bushels from last month due to a 1.4 bushel increase in the yield projection, from 41.9 to 43.3 bushels per acre. Imports were lowered 5 million bushels. Total U.S. wheat supply is now projected at 2.961 billion bushels, 67 million bushels larger than last month.

Domestic use for wheat projections increased by 5 million bushels. The export projection increased by 25 million bushels, now projected at 950 million bushels. Total use is now projected at 2.218 billion bushels for all U.S. wheat, 70 million bushels less than last month. Ending stocks for U.S. wheat are now placed at 743 million bushels, 37 million bushels larger than last month’s estimate. The estimate for the season average farm price was reduced 10 cents per bushel on both ends of the price range, now placed at $4.70 to $5.70 per bushel.

World ending stocks for wheat are projected at 183.56 million metric tons for the ‘09/‘10 marketing year and 169.5 MMT for ‘08/‘09. Both estimates were increased from last month.

Market Strategy
From this point forward, weather developments will be the determining factor in whether we meet these production estimates, exceed them, or fall short of the projections. Since growing conditions are nearly ideal in the Corn Belt, ‘09 U.S. corn and soybean production are most likely to be impacted by the length of the growing season. A long growing season would mean that these forecasts are likely to be met. A shortened season stemming from an early frost would greatly reduce crop yields. In the meantime it may become possible to advance some pre-harvest sales for corn and soybeans as commodity traders jockey their positions to be in line with the, eventual-actual crop size. Currently, Dec ‘09 corn futures are trading at $3.30; Nov ‘09 soybeans at $10.34; and Dec ‘09 SRW wheat at $5.07 per bushel. For technical assistance on making grain marketing decisions contact: Carl L. German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist.

Soybean Rust Update

Friday, August 14th, 2009

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

On August 13, soybean rust was reported in Suwannee County, Florida on kudzu. On August 12, soybean rust was reported in three additional Florida counties, Duval, Madison, and Washington. On August 11, soybean rust was reported on soybean in Tift County in Georgia. On August 10, soybean rust was found for the first time this year in Arkansas, in Chicot County on soybeans. On August 6, soybean rust was found in Holmes County, Mississippi in a commercial soybean field; this is a first find in the state this year.

As you can see soybean rust activity is increasing in the South. Most of the spore movement is going toward the Mississippi River Valley and not east. There has been some spraying for soybean diseases in the South other than rust but the rust that has appeared in commercial fields has come too late to affect yields for the most part. The season is still young and we have considerable acreage of late soybeans this year, so time will tell. Soybean rust monitoring in Delaware has begun and we will keep you up to date.

sbrmap13Aug09

Agronomic Crop Insects – August 14, 2009

Friday, August 14th, 2009

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Alfalfa, Grain Sorghum, Late Planted Field Corn and Grass Hay Crops
Over the past week, we have received reports from consultants in Maryland and Delaware regarding fall armyworm damage to all of these crops. In corn and grain sorghum, control will be difficult since armyworms feed deep in the whorls of plants. For the most effective control, materials must be directed into the whorls and at least 25 gallons of water used per acre to get a reduction in populations. Also, in many cases one application is often not enough to get satisfactory control – especially if larvae are large and feeding deep in the whorls. For alfalfa, field corn and grain sorghum, a number of pyrethroids, as well as Lorsban and Lannate are labeled for armyworm control. Labeled pyrethroids often indicate that larvae should be small (first and second instar only) and/or the highest labeled rate is needed, especially if larvae are larger.

In grass hay crops, fields should be watched closely after cutting for armyworm damage to the regrowth. Baythroid XL, Mustang MAX, and Warrior II are all labeled for armyworm control on grass hay crops. Insects must be small at the time of treatment to achieve control.

Before treatment, be sure to check all labels for the rate; comments on control under high populations and size of larvae; days to harvest, forage/silage restrictions, as well as other use restrictions.

Soybeans
As the potential for late season insect control increases, be sure to check all labels for the days from last application to harvest as well as other restrictions.

In double crop soybeans, be sure to watch for an increase in defoliators, especially green cloverworm. Remember, double crop soybeans can not tolerate as much defoliation as full season soybeans. Unfortunately, we do not have a threshold for the number of green cloverworms per sweep. A treatment maybe needed if defoliation has increased from one scouting visit to the next, especially if other defoliators are present at the time of treatment. Diseases can help to crash populations; however, we have only found a few diseased worms so far this week.

Continue to scout all soybeans (full season and double crop) for soybean aphids. We continue to find aphids in fields throughout the state and in some locations populations are increasing. We have heard of hot spots on the eastern shore of Maryland as well. When scouting for aphids, you need to look at the entire plant – not just the stems. Often times you will the first aphids on the newest emerging trifoliate that is not fully expanded. As a general guideline, treatment is needed through the R-5 stage (seed is 1/8 inch long in the pod of one of the four uppermost nodes on the main stem) of soybean development if economic levels are present. It may also be beneficial to spray through R-6 stage (pods containing a green seed that fills the pod cavity at one of the four uppermost nodes on the main stem) — reports vary as to the benefit of spraying once plants reach the R-6 but in some years and some situations there has been an economic return. Spraying after R-6 stage has not been documented to increase yield in the Midwest. The suggested treatment threshold from the Midwest is still 250 aphids per plant with 80% of the plants infested with aphids. Although we are not seeing high levels of beneficial insect activity, we are starting to see an increase in lady beetle number as well as parasitized aphids. You can also consider using speed scouting to make a treatment decision. Information on how to use speed scouting can be founds at: http://www.nwroc.umn.edu/Cropping_issues/2007/Issue9/07_17_07_no4.htm
or
http://breeze.ag.vt.edu/speedscouting.

We continue to find sporadic and low levels of corn earworms in fields throughout the state. As corn dries down, moths emerging from larvae found in corn fields will lay eggs in soybeans. Remember, corn earworms will feed on the foliage and the pods. The only way to know if you have an economic level will be to scout. Therefore be sure to scout all fields for podworms. States to our south, including Virginia, have reported control failures with pyrethroids in soybeans in 2007 and 2008. Up until 2008, poor control in our area has been the result of treating too late, treating large worms or using too low of a rate. If you use a pyrethroid for earworm control, you should be using the highest labeled rate. In addition to the pyrethoids, Steward or Lorsban should also be considered, especially if armyworms are in the mix. In the past, we have used the treatment threshold of 3 corn earworms per 25 sweeps in narrow row fields and 5 corn earworms per 25 sweeps in wide row fields (20 inches or greater). These are static thresholds that were calculated for a 10-year average soybean bushel value of $6.28. A better approach to determining a threshold is to access the Corn Earworm Calculator (http://www.ipm.vt.edu/cew/) which estimates a threshold based on the actual treatment cost and bushel value you enter.

Pumpkin Plants Turn Ugly in Just a Few Days

Friday, August 14th, 2009

Jerry Brust, IPM Vegetable Specialist, University of Maryland; jbrust@umd.edu

Last Thursday, August 6, my pumpkin plants looked great with large green leaves and just a little powdery mildew (Fig. 1). Just a few days later and they looked horrid (Fig. 2). Some leaves were just splotched with little yellow spots, while other leaves had necrotic edges (Fig. 3). By the calls I have been getting so far this week this same sort of thing is happening in many other pumpkin fields around Maryland. Exactly what could cause such a rapid decline of the foliage is still not clear. The weather over the weekend and for the last few days was some of the hottest and most humid we have had so far this summer. Pumpkins are sizing on the vine and the plants are under stress. In some of the fields the soil moisture seemed adequate, but greater levels are needed when it is this hot and plants and fruit are large. In most of the fields downy mildew was either established or just getting started. Whether it was the weather that weakened the plants and the downy mildew could take-off or the low level of infection of the downy mildew further stressed the plants when it was so hot and humid is unclear and does not really matter as the downy mildew needs to be controlled before it gets any worse. Best management practices for downy have been reported by Bob and Kate over the last few weeks. (Editor’s Note: See articles in WCU 17:17, WCU 17:18, and WCU 17:19 for fungicide recommendations from Bob Mulrooney and Kate Everts.)

Another factor may have been soil pH that was a little low but certainly tolerable, i.e., 5.7-6.0. These pH levels usually are not a problem but when the plant is under stress any additional stress will just add to the misery of that plant. At this point in time you cannot do anything about your pH, so be sure to reduce as many other stresses as you can—disease, insects (squash bug and cucumber beetles), and lack of water.

healthy pumpkin plantsFigure 1. Pumpkin field on Thursday, August 6, looking good

stressed pumpkin plantsFigure 2. Same pumpkin field on Wednesday, August 12, downy mildew is at low levels in the field

pumpkin leaf with downy mildew symptomsFigure 3. Pumpkin leaf with splotchy yellowing — downy mildew was found to be just starting on this leaf

Cucurbit Downy Mildew Update – August 14, 2009

Friday, August 14th, 2009

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

The weather continues to be very favorable for downy mildew. It is spreading now to hosts other than cucumber. Cantaloupe, watermelon, winter squash and pumpkin have all been infected in the region. The spots are much smaller on butternut squash and watermelon but still produce the small tuft of fungus growth on the underside of the leaf. All cucurbit growers need to be including a fungicide specific for downy mildew in their spray rotation such as Previcur Flex, Ranman, Presidio, or Tanos at this time. Follow the label directions for plant-back restrictions, mixing partners such as Bravo and mancozeb, and adjuvants. See the 2009 Commercial Vegetable Productions Recommendations for more information.

Basil Downy Mildew Found in Delaware

Friday, August 14th, 2009

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Herb growers should be on the lookout for basil downy mildew. It is now showing up in the region, including Delaware. There was some found earlier in the summer on transplants but now it is spreading by airborne spores called sporangia. Often the symptoms appear in the upper canopy as light yellow blotches and it is difficult to see in the early stages. These light blotches continue to turn yellow, brown then black. The fungus can be seen on the lower leaf surface as fine tufts of fungus growth as well as the sporangia that blow in the wind and spread the disease. The only fungicides that are labeled are the phosphorus acid or phosphonate fungicides that have herbs on the label which include Prophyt and K-Phite. Increase air circulation and remove badly infected plants. There is more info on the Plant Clinic website http://ag.udel.edu/extension/pdc/index.htm. The following photos are courtesy of Meg McGrath, Cornell University, Riverhead Long Island.

basil downy mildew on upper leaf surfaceYellowing on upper leaf surfaces

basil downy mildew on lower leaf surfacePathogen growth and spores on lower leaf surfaces.

basil downy mildew sporulationClose-up of pathogen growth.