Posts Tagged ‘17:4’

Grain Marketing Highlights

Friday, April 10th, 2009

Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist;

Tighter Ending Stocks Projected
Ending stocks of U.S. corn, soybeans, and wheat were reduced in USDA’s April Supply and Demand report for the ’08/’09 marketing year. World ending stocks were also reduced for corn and soybeans, with an increase projected for wheat. The report, which is viewed as bullish for corn and soybeans, is likely to help the seasonal rally resume for the row crops. The seasonal rally for corn generally runs through June into pollination while the seasonal rally for soybeans runs through August.

Corn Analysis
Changes made to USDA’s ’08/’09 marketing year balance sheet from last month include an increase of 50 million bushels in feed and residual use; and a decrease of 10 million bushels in food, seed and industrial use. The estimate for ethanol demand was left unchanged at 1.7 billion bushels bringing the projection for total domestic use of U.S. corn to 10.340 billion bushels. Exports were left unchanged at 1.7 billion bushels. With total supply now estimated at 13.740 billion bushels and total use projected at 12.040 billion bushels, ending stocks for U.S. corn are now projected at 1.7 billion bushels, a decrease of 40 million bushels from last month’s estimate. The season average farm price for U.S. corn was increased 10 cents per bushel on both ends of the price range, now estimated at $3.90 to $4.00 per bushel.  

Brazilian corn production was increased one million metric ton from last month and is now projected at 50.5 MMT. Argentine corn production was left unchanged at 13.5 MMT. Combined production for Brazil and Argentina is projected to be 17.6 MMT less than last year. World ending stocks of corn are now projected at 143.33 MMT as compared to 144.62 MMT a month ago.

Soybean Analysis
The projection for imports was increased 3 million bushels bringing total supply to 3.176 billion bushels. Total soybean use was increased 23 million bushels from last month. Crushings were reduced 5 million bushels; exports increased 25 million bushels; seed use increased 4 million bushels; residual use was left unchanged at 73 million bushels for a total use of 3.011 billion bushels. Ending stocks for U.S. soybeans are now projected at 165 million bushels, a 20 million bushel decrease from a month ago. The season average farm price projection was increased 40 cents per bushel on the low end and 20 cents per bushel on the high end of the price range, now projected at $9.25 to $10.05 per bushel.

Brazilian soybean production was left unchanged from last month at 57 MMT, 2 MMT less than a year ago. Argentine soybean production, now projected at 39 MMT, is 4 MMT less than last month’s estimate and 7.2 MMT less than last year’s production. World ending stocks of soybeans are now projected at 45.84 MMT, 4.11 MMT less than last month and 8.25 MMT less than last year.

Wheat Analysis
The projection for all wheat imports was increased 5 million bushels bringing total supply to 2.930 billion bushels. Food use was left unchanged at 925 million bushels; seed use was increased 1 million bushel, now projected at 79 million bushels; and feed and residual use was increased 50 million bushels, now estimated at 250 million bushels. Total domestic use is now projected at 1.254 billion bushels. Exports were left unchanged at 980 million bushels bringing the total use projection to 2.234 billion bushels. Ending stocks for all wheat, now projected at 696 million bushels, are 16 million bushels less than last month. The season average farm price for all wheat was increased 10 cents per bushel on the low end and left unchanged on the high end of the price range, now projected at $6.80 to $6.90 per bushel.

Australian wheat production is now estimated at 21.5 MMT, an increase of 7.7 MMT from last year. Canadian wheat production, projected at 28.6 MMT, is 8.5 MMT larger than last year. World ending stocks for all wheat are now projected at 158.1 MMT, 35.72 MMT larger than last year.

Marketing Strategy
The April report can be expected to resume the seasonal rally for corn and soybeans. Ending stock estimates for domestic corn, soybeans, and wheat came in below the average for pre-report estimates. Ending stock size is likely to limit the extent of the rally for corn and could accelerate the rally for soybeans, in the short term. Any rally occurring in the row crops will help to stem pressure on wheat futures. Trader attention will now turn to planting progress, watching to see whether any acreage shifts occur. Earlier it was thought that late planting could shift some acres from corn to soybean planting. At this point in time, it is still too early to make any determination on whether any acreage shift will occur. Currently, Dec ’09 corn futures are trading at $4.29; Nov ’09 soybean futures at $9.20; and July ’09 SRW wheat futures are $5.40 per bushel. For technical assistance on making grain marketing decisions contact Carl L. German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist.

Weed Control in Forages

Friday, April 10th, 2009

Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist;

If you have not done so yet, be sure to examine your hay, pasture, and alfalfa fields for weed infestations. Earlier applications are much more effective than later as weeds get larger and start to produce seeds. For grass hayfields or pastures, weed control options include dicamba (Banvel or Clarity), 2,4-D, Overdrive, Crossbow, or Cimarron. Cimarron and Crossbow provide residual control, while the other products do not. Be sure to read the label and follow all precautions concerning grazing and haying restrictions as well as overseeding and re-seeding restrictions.

For pure alfalfa fields, Buctril, 2,4-DB, Pursuit or Raptor are labeled for broadleaf weeds. Pursuit and Raptor will provide both postemergence control as well as residual control. Select and Poast are labeled for grass control in a pure alfalfa stand. Recently Prowl H2O and Chateau have received labels for use in alfalfa. Both will provide residual control; be sure to read the labels and observe all precautions on application timing.

Options for Triazine-Resistant Lambsquartes and Pigweed Control in Corn

Friday, April 10th, 2009

Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist;

Triazine resistant weeds are a wide spread problem in Delaware. Atrazine at 1.25 to 1.5 lbs/A is an effective rate if the weeds are not triazine-resistant, but will have no effect on triazine-resistant weeds. If lambsquarters and pigweed are not effectively controlled with the atrazine applied preemergence but other species are controlled, you should be concerned about triazine-resistant biotypes and control them postemergence. Atrazine is in many pre-mixtures with residual grass herbicides including: Bicep, Guardsman Max, Keystone, Harness Xtra, and Fultime. Furthermore, triazine-resistant weeds will not be controlled with Princep and probably not with Sencor either.

If you know you have problems with triazine-resistant pigweed or lambsquarters, Lumax, Lexar, Prowl, or Hornet are options. Hornet can cause some stunting if corn is planted less than 1.5 inches deep or soil organic matter is less than 1.5%. Beware of planting depth and adequate soil covering the seed if using Prowl. Other herbicide options are available, but they have not performed as consistently in our trials. Regardless of products used at planting, do not assume they will provide full-season weed control. Scout the fields and determine if a postemergence treatment is needed.

Control of triazine-resistant lambsquarters is often dependent upon postemergence applications. Postemergence control of lambsquarters and pigweed (triazine-resistant and susceptible) can be achieved with a number of options including Ignite (Liberty Link corn), glyphosate (Roundup Ready corn), Distinct, Banvel, Exceed, Callisto (can not use if Lumax was used at planting), Impact, Laudis, Harmony GT, NorthStar, Equip, Resolve (pigweed only).

Weed Control for No-Till Soybeans

Friday, April 10th, 2009

Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist;

It’s time to consider your options for no-till soybean burndown programs, and it is particularly important if you have glyphosate-resistant horseweed (marestail). Weed control for no-till soybeans has become more complicated as glyphosate-resistant horseweed has spread and species-shifts have occurred because of over-reliance on glyphosate for soybean weed control. A new fact sheet, “Approaches to Pre-Plant Weed Control in No-till Soybeans” is available at This fact sheet discusses the need for a combination of non-selective herbicide plus a plant growth regulator (2,4-D or dicamba) plus a residual herbicide for consistent weed control. In addition, the disadvantages of waiting until late spring to spray no-till herbicides are discussed.

Reminders on Acetochlor Use Restrictions

Friday, April 10th, 2009

Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist;

Acetochlor is a preemergence herbicide for corn that controls annual grasses and some broadleaf weeds. It is in the following products: Harness, Harness Extra, Degree, Degree Extra, Topnotch, Fultime, and Keystone. There are use restrictions that are important in our area. The restrictions pertain to groundwater quality. The restrictions are based on depth of groundwater within one month of planting and the combination of soil type and organic matter. Do not apply acetochlor if the groundwater depth is within 30 feet and you have sands with less than 3% organic matter, loamy sands with less than 2% organic matter, or sandy loam with less than 1% organic matter.

Small Grain Disease Update

Friday, April 10th, 2009

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist;

Wheat virus diseases can be hard to diagnose especially when wheat is not growing quickly due to the cool weather. Both soilborne viruses, soilborne wheat mosaic and wheat spindle streak mosaic virus can cause stunting of plants at this time of the year. Varying degrees of mottling and yellow streaks or dashes may be present. It is hard to generalize what the patterns in the field might look like, but wheat spindle streak can be uniform across the field or in scattered spots that generally coincide with low spots in the field. Soilborne wheat mosaic virus is seen typically in large irregular spots in low or poorly drained areas of the field. A wheat sample sent to the lab last week was positively identified with wheat soil born mosaic virus by ELISA testing at Agdia, Inc. For a list of wheat varieties and their ratings for susceptibility to both virus diseases go to There is no control for these diseases other than planting resistant varieties. When warm weather returns the plants will generally grow out of the symptoms but the effect on yield can be very variable depending how early the plants were infected. If the symptoms persist until the flag leaf emerges, more yield loss can be expected. For additional information on soilborn wheat mosaic virus and wheat spindle streak mosaic virus see this factsheet from University of Maryland

Another disease that has been seen in the lab is Ascochyta leaf spot. This disease is caused by a very weak pathogenic fungus that infects winter damaged leaf tissue primarily. Most fieldmen and growers get excited when they see this because it looks like Septoria leafspot which does not occur until much later in the season in this region. Ascochyta occurs primarily on lower leaves and begins as small chlorotic flecks that then develop into elongated gray-brown spots that can resemble Septoria nodorum spots. This disease does not warrant fungicide applications and usually disappears once wheat growth resumes wholeheartedly.

Agronomic Crop Insects

Friday, April 10th, 2009

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist;

Be sure to watch for economic levels of alfalfa weevil and pea aphids. When sampling for aphids and weevils, collect a minimum of 30 random stems throughout a field and place them top first in a white bucket. For aphids, you want to count the number present per plant as well as any that have dislodged from the stem into the bucket. In seedling stage alfalfa, a treatment should be considered if you find 5 aphids per stem. As a general guideline, you should consider a treatment in alfalfa less than 10 inches tall if you find 40-50 aphids per stem. The treatment threshold for alfalfa 10 inches or taller in height is 75-100 per stem. Although beneficial insects can help to crash aphid populations, the cooler temperatures have slowed their activity. As a general rule, you need one beneficial insect per every 50-100 aphids to help crash populations. For alfalfa weevil, you will also want to record the number of weevil larvae per stem. The following thresholds, based on the height of the alfalfa, should be used as a guideline when making a treatment decision: up to 11 inches tall – 0.7 per stem; 12 inches tall – 1.0 per stem; 13 – 15 inches tall – 1.5 per stem; 16 inches tall – 2.0 per stem; 17 – 18 inches tall – 2.5 per stem.

Low levels of aphids and cereal leaf beetle adults can be found in fields throughout the state. Since we are past the prime time of barley yellow dwarf transmission (fall transmission is the most important), the next important time to consider aphid management in small grains is at grain head emergence.

Since cereal leaf beetle populations are often unevenly distributed within the field, it is important to carefully sample fields so that you do not over or under estimate a potential problem. Eggs and small larvae should be sampled by examining 10 tillers from 10 evenly spaced locations in the field while avoiding field edges. This will result in 100 tillers (stems) per field being examined. Eggs and larvae may be found on leaves near the ground so careful examination is critical. You should also check stems at random while walking through a major portion of the field and sampling 100 stems. The treatment threshold is 25 or more eggs and/or small larvae per 100 tillers. If you are using this threshold, it is important that you wait until at least 50% are in the larval stage (i.e. after 50% egg hatch).

We are also finding relatively low levels of winter grain mites again, especially in no-till wheat fields. We have also heard of a few fields that have been sprayed. This is a cool weather mite so be sure to watch fields for this pest. The following is an overview of this pest including pest identification, biology/life history and management options written by Dr. Ames Herbert from Virginia Tech.

“Winter grain mites attack small grains, including wheat, barley, and oats. Other hosts include grasses, especially bluegrass, bentgrass, ryegrass, and fescue. The mite also infests and damages legumes, vegetables, ornamental flowers, cotton, peanuts, and various weeds. Adult mites are about 1 mm long, black, with red legs and are fast moving. They quickly run to ground cover when you approach plants.

“As the name implies, they are winter pests. There are two generations per year. The first develops from over summering eggs. Development begins after the onset of favorable temperature and moisture conditions in late September and October with populations peaking in December and January. The second generation develops from eggs laid by the first generation reaching maximum infestation density in March and April. Populations then decrease as temperatures exceed the range of tolerance. The females of this generation lay aestivating or over summering eggs.

“Temperature and moisture are the most important factors influencing mite development and abundance. Cool rather than warm temperatures favor their development. Egg laying is heaviest between 50° and 60°F; the optimum conditions for hatching are between 44° and 55°F. When temperatures drop below or rise above these ranges, the mites stop feeding and descend to the ground or burrow into the soil. Mite activity in the spring drops rapidly and the eggs fail to hatch when the daily temperature exceeds 75°F. Aestivating (over summering resting stage) eggs do not hatch in the fall until rains provide adequate moisture. On hot, dry days it may be necessary to dig into the soil to a depth of four or five inches to find mites. The mites are not harmed by short periods of sleet or ice cover or by ground frozen to a depth of several inches.

“The larvae become very active soon after hatching and begin to feed on the sheath leaves or tender shoots near the ground. The larvae as well as the adults feed higher up on the plants at night or on cloudy days. As the sun rises, the mites descend the plants and seek protection during the hot part of the day on the moist soil surface under foliage. If the soil is dry and there is little foliage cover, they dig into the soil in search of moisture and cooler temperatures. At sunset and thereafter the plants become covered with feeding mites where, with the aid of a searchlight, they can be observed feeding at all hours of the night.

“Dispersion from field to field may occur by transportation of aestivating eggs or mites on grain stubble or leaves, on soil adhering to implements that are moved about, or on forage or straw carried from infested fields in livestock feeding operations. Aestivating eggs may also be transported on debris by wind, and local distribution may occur by adult migration. Such migrations to grain fields may take place from fencerows or other uncultivated areas.

“Heavily infested fields appear grayish or silvery, a result of the removal of plant chlorophyll by mite feeding. When high infestations feed on the plants for several days, the tips of the leaves exhibit a scorched appearance and then turn brown, and the entire plant may die. These mites do not cause the yellowing characteristic of spider mite feeding. Many of the infested plants do not die, but become stunted and produce little forage or grain; damage on young plants, however, is more severe than on large, healthy ones. Damage may also be greater in plants stressed by nutrient deficiencies or drought conditions. There are two types of damage to the small grains, namely, reduced amount of forage throughout the winter and reduced yields of grain in the spring and summer. Cropping practices have a marked effect upon the occurrence and damage caused by the winter grain mite. Injury by this mite may be prevented by crop rotation, that is, by not planting small grains more than two years in succession.”

Although we have no research data in Delaware and limited experience with winter grain mite control in commercial fields, materials labeled for other insects on wheat only that appeared to provide control in 2008 on the Delmarva are the pyrethroids (Warrior II, Mustang MAX) and certain organophosphates (dimethoate). NOTE – only Warrior II is also labeled on barley.

Updated Vegetable Crop Budgets Available

Friday, April 10th, 2009

Emmalea Ernest, Extension Associate – Vegetable Crops;

I spent some time this winter revising the vegetable crop budgets, which were last updated in 2004. (Thank you to all whom I pestered by phone, email, or in person for information for the updates.) New budgets are available for processing peas, sweet corn, lima beans, snap beans, spinach and pickling cucumbers. On the fresh market side, I have completed updates for the sweet corn, and seedless and seeded watermelon budgets. I also developed budgets to calculate irrigation costs for drip irrigation systems and for diesel or electric center pivot irrigation systems.

The new budgets are available as Excel spreadsheets online at Each budget spreadsheet has a worksheet with estimated costs and returns and a worksheet where you can enter your actual costs and returns. The units, prices and quantities used in the calculations are easily ascertained and easily customized to your operation in the “Actual” worksheet.

I am hoping to update some more of the fresh market budgets this spring, which I will add to the website as they are completed. If you have any questions or comments about the budgets, please give me a call at (302) 856-2585 x587 or send me an email.

Controlling Leather Rot of Strawberry

Friday, April 10th, 2009

Andy Wyenandt, Assistant Extension Specialist in Vegetable Pathology, Rutgers University;

Leather rot of strawberry, caused by Phytophthora cactorum, can be extremely damaging if left uncontrolled, especially if wet soil conditions and rainy weather persist for extended periods. Weather conditions which favor gray mold development may also favor leather rot. Fungicides effective against gray mold are not highly effective against leather rot (i.e. Captan, Topsin-M). Symptoms of leather rot begin to develop as green fruit begins to develop and mature. On green fruit, infected areas often turn a dark brown. As infection spreads, the entire fruit may turn dark brown and become leathery. However, some fruit may remain mostly green with only dark brown margins developing around the point of infection.

Importantly, infection may cause fully mature fruit to turn reddish-brown to dark purple or cause no distinct symptoms. These healthy-looking fruit have a very unpleasant taste and may be unintentionally harvested for sale. (Bob Mulrooney notes: We see this disease occasionally in Delaware but it will often go undiagnosed except for the poor tasting fruit, which is often attributed to other causes.) The following are some options for control of leather rot in new and established plantings:

New Plantings
Aliette (fosetyl-Al, 33) at 2.5 to 5.0 lb 80WDG/A
Begin 14 to 21 days after planting and continue on a 30 to 60 day interval as long as favorable disease conditions occur.
Ridomil Gold (mefenoxam, 4) at 1.0 pt 4E/A
Make one application at transplanting plus an additional application at fruit set or 30 days before harvest.

Established Plantings
Aliette (fosetyl-Al, 33) at 2.5 to 5.0 lb 80WDG/A
Apply in spring before first bloom and repeat once in the fall.
Ridomil Gold (mefenoxam, 4) at 1.0 pt 4E/A
Apply in spring before first bloom and repeat once in the fall.


Internal symptoms of leather rot infected fruit compared to healthy fruit.


Leather rot infected fruit.

Sumagic Plant Growth Regulator Gets a Label for Some Vegetable Transplants

Friday, April 10th, 2009

Gordon Johnson, Extension Ag Agent, Kent Co.;

Sumagic (active ingredient uniconazole) is a plant growth regulator from Valent Professional Products used in greenhouse production for plant height control. It has received a label for certain fruiting vegetable transplants. This is the first plant growth regulator that has been labeled for vegetable transplants since food crops were pulled from the B-Nine label in 1989. Since then, transplant growers have had to rely solely on temperature, water, or fertility regulation to maintain compact plants and prevent leggy growth.

Sumagic is now registered for use as a foliar spray on tomato, pepper, eggplant, groundcherry, pepino and tomatillo transplants in the greenhouse (no other crops are registered at this time). The recommended label rate is 0.52 to 2.6 fluid oz per gallon (2 to 10 ppm) and one gallon should be sprayed so it covers 200 sq ft of transplant trays (2 quarts per 100 sq ft). The first application can be made when transplants have 2-4 true leaves. One additional application may be made at the low rate, 0.52 fluid oz per gallon (2 ppm), 7-14 days later, but you cannot exceed 2.6 fluid oz of total product (per 100 sq ft) for a season. Growers are advised to do small-scale trials on a portion of their transplants under their growing conditions before full scale adoption. Sumagic is registered for use on labeled vegetable transplants in all states except California and New York. However, the supplemental label must be in the possession of the user at the time of application. Go to for this supplemental label.