Posts Tagged ‘18:10’

WCU Volume 18, Issue 10 – May 21, 2010

Thursday, May 20th, 2010

PDF Version of WCU 18:10 – May 21, 2010

In this issue:

Vegetables
Vegetable Crop Insects
Sweet Corn Vigor
Potato Disease Advisory #3 – May 20, 2010
Late Blight in Southern Maryland
Late Blight Reported on Tomatoes in Maryland and Pennsylvania
Mocap EC 24c Label for Limas and Snap Beans Withdrawn

Agronomic Crops
Agronomic Crop Insects
Wheat Scab Situation
Postemergence Pokeweed Control
Grain Marketing Highlights

Announcements
Agronomic Crops Twilight Tailgate Session – May 26
Workshops on Proposed CAFO Regulations – May 25, 26, 27
Livestock Pasture Walk – June 9
Pea Twilight Meeting – June 10
Delaware Organic Food and Farming Association Workshop and Business Meeting – June 10
Soybean Cyst Nematode Workshop – August 3

Weather

 

Delaware Organic Food and Farming Association Organic Workshop and June Business Meeting

Thursday, May 20th, 2010

Thursday, June 10, 2010     6:00 – 9:00 pm
New Castle County Cooperative Extension Office
461 Wyoming Rd, Newark, DE 19716

Come and listen to Dr. Joseph Heckman from Rutgers University give an interesting and enlightening talk about the history and philosophy of organic farming. We’ll also have a presentation on the organic certification process followed by a business meeting for our DOFFA membership. Anyone wishing to stay or join our organization is welcome.

This workshop is free and everyone interested in attending is welcome.

To register, request more information or if you require special needs assistance for this meeting, please call our office in advance at (302) 831-2506.

See you there!

Anna Stoops, NCC Extension
Agricultural Extension Agent
DOFFA Secretary/Treasurer

Co-sponsored by: A grant from the Delaware Department of Agriculture

Workshops on Proposed CAFO Regulations

Thursday, May 20th, 2010

The Delaware Department of Agriculture (DDA), the Delaware Nutrient Management Commission (DNMC), and the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) are jointly sponsoring workshops to further understanding and awareness of recently proposed draft Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation regulations.  The draft proposed CAFO regulations will be available, beginning May 12, 2010, on the following site:  http://dda.delaware.gov/nutrients/index.shtml .

The public is invited to attend

Workshop Schedule

Tuesday, May 25, 2010     6:00 – 8:30 p.m.
Farmington Fire Hall
20920 South Dupont Highway
Farmington, DE 19950-2381
(302) 398-4445

Wednesday, May 26, 2010     6:00     8:30 p.m.

Laurel Senior High School

1133 South Central Avenue
Laurel, DE 19956-1491
(302) 875-6120

Thursday, May 27, 2010     6:00 – 8:30 p.m.

Millsboro Fire Hall

109 E. State St.
Millsboro, DE 19966
(302) 934-8359

Workshop Agenda
6:00 PM – Workshop begins with open forum discussions

7:00 PM – Introductions and workshop overview
            ● Regulatory timeline
            ● Overview of regulations
            ● Questions and answers

8:30 PM – Adjourn

Open forum discussion topics include:

● Who needs a CAFO permit?
● How is a CAFO permit issued?
● How does my operation benefit from a CAFO permit?
● What is required in a CAFO permit application?
● What are the State Technical Standards (best management practices)?
● What is required for new operations?

For more information contact: 
Mark Davis, DDA at (302) 698-4503 or
Mark.Davis@state.de
Jennifer Walls, DNREC at (302) 739-9062 or
Jennifer.Walls@state.de.us    

Grain Marketing Highlights – May 21, 2010

Thursday, May 20th, 2010

Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu

Market Factors Competing with Seasonal Rally
The primary question on many grain producers minds at this point in time has got to be something along the line – “When will the seasonal price rally for corn begin”? The question becomes more pressing each passing day as market forces, both those considered inside and outside, are taking their toll on commodity prices. To further exacerbate the problem, commercial and non-commercial traders have been stepping to the sidelines due to the uncertainty caused by world economic conditions i.e., Greece. Plummeting crude oil prices, a decline in the Dow resulting from the economic uncertainty, lagging world demand, and relative strength in the dollar have also attributed to keeping a lid on commodity prices. Yet, it is too early to call grain prices out for the season. Much can happen between now and harvest, among other things, the weather can change from the near ideal conditions that the U.S. has experienced thus far. On a positive note, U.S. corn and soybean exports were reported to be bullish in this morning’s export sales report.

Crop progress is another factor impacting the possibility of getting a seasonal rally for corn this year before the first week of June. As of Monday May 17, 87% of the U.S. corn crop was planted, 26 points ahead of last year and 9 points ahead of the five year average. A little over half of the corn crop has emerged, about double a year ago and 16 points ahead of the five year average. About 40 percent of the soybean crop is planted, double last year’s pace and just ahead of the five year average. Soybean crop emergence, reported at 13%, was 8 points ahead of last year and 4 points ahead of the five year average. Crop conditions for new crop corn development were reported at 67% good to excellent.

USDA Export Sales Report (week ending 5/13/10)
Pre-report estimates for weekly export sales of soybeans (combined old-crop and new-crop) ranged from 18.4 million bushels to 23.9 million bushels. The weekly report showed total export sales of 20.8 million bushels, with old-crop sales of 17.6 million bushels, above the 4.5 million bushels needed this week to stay on pace with USDA’s demand projection of 1.455 billion bushels. Total shipments of 10 million bushels were above the 9 million bushels needed this week. This report should be viewed as bullish.

Pre-report estimates had weekly corn export sales at 37.4 million bushels to 49.2 million bushels. The weekly report showed total export sales of 62.1 million bushels, with old-crop sales of 53.3 million bushels, well above the 17.9 million bushels needed this week to stay on pace with USDA’s demand projection of 1.95 billion bushels. Total shipments of 38.5 million bushels were below the 45.3 million bushels needed this week. This report should be viewed as bullish.

Pre-report estimates for wheat ranged between 5.5 to 16.5 million bushels. The weekly report showed total export sales of 16.7 million bushels with old-crop sales of 9.2 million bushels, above the 7.3 million bushels needed this week to stay on pace with USDA’s projected 865 million bushels. Shipments of 12.3 million bushels were well below the 32.7 million bushels needed this week. This report should be viewed as bearish.

Marketing Strategy
Some of the best pricing opportunities for new crop corn the past two marketing years occurred on or about the first of June. The possibility of that event occurring again this year is beginning to look rather remote. However, the possibility still exits and/or for some unknown reason may occur later in the growing season.

New crop Dec ‘10 corn futures are currently trading in the bottom third of the recent historic price range, closing at $3.78 per bushel on May 19. New crop Nov ‘10 soybean futures are trading in likewise fashion, closing at $9.05 per bushel. When commodity prices are in their bottom third of the price range the opportunities for making sales and the alternatives available for use are greatly diminished.

New crop basis bids for corn and soybeans, currently at 10 over for corn and 35 to 45 under for soybeans in Southern Delaware, are not indicative that making new crop sales in the cash market are warranted at this time. An at-the-money $3.80 corn put with a premium of 34 cents per bushel and an anticipated basis of 29 over equates to a minimum selling price of $3.75 per bushel, excluding commission. Using puts is being suggested as something to think about for those lagging in advancing new crop sales and/or those concerned that new crop prices could turn much lower between now and harvest. Those looking for a way to get back in the market for previously sold corn might consider employing either the purchase of a call or employing a call spread by buying a $4.00 September call (currently priced at 14 cents per bushel) and selling a $4.50 Dec call (currently priced at 12 ¾ cents per bushel), both considered speculative market maneuvers. This spread reduces the costs of the call and if exercised places a grain marketer in a short futures (hedge) position at the $4.50 strike price. Sometimes the best course of action to follow is to do nothing, see what the summer brings. Problem is, waiting could put one in a precarious position in the event that record or near record corn and soybean crops are produced in the U.S. this growing season.

For technical assistance on making grain marketing decisions contact Carl L. German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist.

Postemergence Pokeweed Control

Thursday, May 20th, 2010

Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu

A few questions have come in about controlling common pokeweed postemergence in field corn. We had a trial a few years ago with tall pokeweed (sprayed in late June) and had results similar to a study contacted at Southern Illinois University. Dicamba [Banvel, Clarity, Sterling]; Distinct; NorthStar, and Callisto were the best treatments for conventional corn hybrids. Glyphosate was also effective if Roundup Ready corn was planted. Our trial did not include Lightning, but the SIU trial reported good control with Lightning with Clearfield corn. For soybeans, glyphosate is the best option. In non-Roundup Ready soybeans, Synchrony was fair (but requires STS-soybeans) or FirstRate which was only fair in the SIU trial.

Wheat Scab Situation

Thursday, May 20th, 2010

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Weather was favorable for scab infection in Kent County, DE yesterday if any was flowering at the time. The forecast is not favorable for scab statewide for the rest of the week. This should put us out of the window where we might see scab this season. There may be some secondary tillers with heads that were possibly at risk the last two days which may show symptoms in the next week or so. If there is any scab it will be considerably lower that what appeared last year.

Agronomic Crop Insects – May 21, 2010

Thursday, May 20th, 2010

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Alfalfa
When checking regrowth for damage from weevils, be sure to also consider damage from adults. If economic levels were present before cutting and no spray was applied, both adults and larvae can hold back re-growth. With the cool conditions we have had this week, there may not have been enough “stubble” heat to control the weevils with a cutting. Potato leafhoppers are now present in fields so be sure to sample on a weekly basis after the first cutting. Once the damage is found, yield loss has already occurred. The treatment thresholds are 20 per 100 sweeps on alfalfa 3 inches or less in height, 50 per 100 sweeps in 4-6 inch tall alfalfa and 100 per 100 sweeps in 7-11 inch tall alfalfa.

Field Corn
With the recent cool, wet weather, slugs continue to be the main pest of concern, especially in fields with a history of problems. Options to reduce damage and allow plants to grow ahead of the damage include the use of Deadline M-Ps (or other available metaldehyde baits). In years past, 30% nitrogen applied at night when the plants are dry and there is no wind has also been used with variable success (the rate used in past years was 20 gallons per acre of 30% N on corn in the spike to one-leaf stage and the mix was cut 50/50 with water to reduce – but not eliminate – plant injury). Slugs seem to be most active on the plants between midnight and 3 AM so applications of nitrogen have been most effective when applied between those hours. The best control with the Deadline M-Ps has been observed when applications were made and there was at least one day of sunny weather after an application. In general slugs stop feeding in 2-3 hours even though it may take the slugs 2-3 days to die. Remember that when it comes to slug management all of the available control tactics generally reduce the slug activity – buying time to enable the crop to outgrow the problem.

Small Grains
We continue to find armyworms, sawflies and cereal leaf beetles in barley and wheat fields that were not treated, so be sure to check fields as soon as it is dry enough in the day to do a good job scouting. Population levels remain variable throughout the state so scouting fields will be the only way to determine if an economic level is present. Also, with the recent weather patterns, the hatch of armyworm larvae will be staggered –i.e. there will be large and small larvae in fields. Although armyworm can attack both wheat and barley, they can quickly cause significant losses in barley. Before treatment, be sure to check all labels for the days allowed between last application and harvest.

Soybeans
As the earliest beans emerge, be sure to watch carefully for slug damage. Remember, if you had a problem last year, the slugs will still be present in fields and can quickly damage soybeans if present as plants emerge. Be sure to also watch fields carefully for bean leaf beetles and grasshoppers. Early detection and control of small grasshoppers is necessary to achieve control. Numerous products are labeled for grasshopper control. As a reminder, OP insecticides (like dimethoate or Lorsban) cannot be combined with SU/ALS herbicides (like Harmony GT). Since other materials may also state restrictions regarding combinations of insecticide and herbicides, you should be sure to check all labels carefully before combining insecticides and herbicides. Also all uses and tolerances of Furadan have been cancelled so you cannot use existing stocks on any crop in 2010.

Mocap EC 24c Label for Limas and Snap Beans Withdrawn

Thursday, May 20th, 2010

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Mocap EC section 24c special local need label for lima and snapbeans in DE was withdrawn by Bayer Crop Science after EPA determined that human health risk findings required reduced application rates. The recommended reduced rate can offer control on garden symphylans, but can only provide suppression to nematodes. Since root knot and other nematodes will not be controlled the label was withdrawn. This does not affect the use of Mocap 10G, if growers have granular applicator boxes for their planters this formulation is effective at the label rates.

Late Blight Reported on Tomatoes in Maryland and Pennsylvania

Thursday, May 20th, 2010

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

There was a confirmed report of late blight on greenhouse grown tomato transplants and in a high tunnel in southern Maryland. This is an isolated occurrence and should be no threat to our area at the present time. This outbreak highlights the continued need for timely scouting of tomatoes and potatoes for the early symptoms and signs of late blight.

Just breaking news is that there was a late blight report from Pennsylvania. Beth Gugino, Extension Vegetable Plant Pathologist at Penn State reports that “at the end of the day on Monday, late blight was confirmed (sporangia observed) on locally grown greenhouse tomato transplants in the Northwest region of Pennsylvania. The grower has destroyed the symptomatic plants and is adjusting his fungicide program. The PA Department of Ag is currently conducting a site visit and is working with the grower to avoid potential spread.”As I said before keep a close watch on emerging potatoes and tomato transplants.

Late Blight in Southern Maryland

Thursday, May 20th, 2010

Kate Everts, Vegetable Pathologist, University of Delaware and University of Maryland; keverts@umd.edu

Late blight on tomato occurred early in 2009 throughout the East Coast. Because the disease arrived early and was disseminated widely on infected transplants, growers had to apply fungicides season-long to maintain crop health. Unfortunately on May 7, 2010 a greenhouse outbreak of late blight on tomato was found in St. Mary’s County, MD. The grower destroyed the tomatoes in his greenhouse, but kept some high tunnel production, where the disease is being managed with fungicide applications. We do not know how late blight became established or whether it will spread quickly. The surrounding fields have been scouted extensively and no additional infection has been found. The disease is favored by cool wet weather, which often occurs in spring. Therefore, tomato growers should scout their crop rigorously and apply fungicides as described below.

Late blight is caused by the fungus-like organism Phytophthora infestans, which is an obligate parasite. The organism prefers cool moist weather and cannot overwinter in Delaware or Maryland (outside a living host) because only one mating type is known to occur in these states. (If the other mating type is introduced, the pathogen would be able to form resistant oospores.) In the absence of resistant oospores, the late blight fungus overwinters in infected potato tubers or is introduced into an area on wind, or infected plants. We don’t believe that the pathogen overwintered in St. Mary’s County, however we don’t know how it was introduced. The grower did not have any live plants that could have allowed late blight to overwinter.

Phytophthora infestans can infect leaves, stems and fruit of tomatoes (Figures 1-3). Lesions on leaves are large and dark brown. Purplish or whitish growth on the lower surface of the lesions occurs under humid conditions. Fruit lesions initially appear water soaked, turn dark brown, expand rapidly, and are shiny.

There are several fungicides available that will help reduce disease spread. No fungicide however, will eradicate the disease. To be most effective, fungicides should be applied prior to disease onset. For this reason, once plants reach a height of 6 inches, protectant fungicide should be applied every seven days. Chlorothalonil (Bravo), Gavel or mancozeb are good choices.

Once the disease is observed in the area, switch to a translaminar fungicide which can move into and through the leaves. Also, it is important to note that while the most common previously occurring P. infestans genotypes were resistant to Ridomil, the genotype that occurred on tomatoes in 2009 (called US22) is sensitive to Ridomil. In addition, there are several other fungicides listed in the Delaware Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations, which can be used for late blight management.

Rotate between the following tank mixtures:

● Curzate–3.2-5.0 oz 60DF/A plus a protectant fungicide
● Forum–6.0 fl oz 4.18SC/A plus a protectant fungicide
● Presidio–3.0–4.0 floz 4SC/A plus a protectant fungicide
● Previcur Flex–1.5 pt 6F/A plus a protectant fungicide
● Ranman–2.1-2.75 fl oz 400SC/A plus a protectant fungicide
● Revus Top–5.5–7.0 floz 4.16SC/A plus a protectant fungicide
● Tanos–8.0 oz 50WG/A plus a protectant fungicide
● Reason –5.5 – 8.2 fl. oz plus a protectant fungicide

 

 

Late blight symptoms on leaves (Figure 1), stems (Figure 2) and fruit (Figure 3) of tomato (images courtesy of Dr. Meg McGrath, Cornell University).