Posts Tagged ‘18:20’

Grain Marketing Highlights – July 30, 2010

Friday, August 13th, 2010

Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu

Markets Await August Supply/Demand Report
Late-summer patterns for the U.S. 2010 corn crop, which was planted at a brisk pace to start the growing season, are largely favorable to finish pollination and move through the dough and dent stages, according to Bryce Anderson, DTN Meteorologist. Key Corn Belt states have generally beneficial growing conditions to finish out the 2010 U.S. corn crop. This means promising corn yields to surpass USDA’s projected yield of 163.5 bushels per acre, leading the market weather impact to be mostly bearish. Additionally, initial indications concerning the U.S. soybean crop are suggesting a new record or near record yield, although is still too early in the soybean growing season to know. Weather is just one of many factors impacting the market. However, as of July 19, almost two-thirds of the U.S. corn crop reached the silk stage, more than double the pace of 2009 and 18 percentage points ahead of average.

The only issue for corn moving into the final few weeks of the season may be high nighttime temperatures. For example, an area from southern Iowa through Missouri and east across most of Illinois, through the Ohio Valley, had nighttime low temperatures in the July 18 to 24 period from 70 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit. Such warm temperatures can take away from the crop’s performance.

“High nighttime temperatures can hurt corn yield potential by causing the plant to speed up its rate of respiration,” according to University of Missouri extension agronomist Wayne Flanery. “With the higher nighttime temperatures, the corn plant uses up some of its energy at night, rather than put that energy into the kernels.” Ideal temperatures for corn at night are around 64°F.

USDA Export Sales Report 07/29 (week ending 7/22/10)
Pre-report estimates had weekly corn export sales (combined old-crop and new-crop) at 31.5 to 39.4 million bushels. The weekly report showed old-crop export sales of 17.0 million bushels and new-crop sales of 20.8 million bushels. Total shipments of 47.2 million bushels were below the 53.8 million bushels needed this week to stay on pace with USDA’s demand projection of 1.95 billion bushels. This report should be viewed as neutral to bearish.

Pre-report estimates for weekly export sales of soybeans (combined old-crop and new-crop) ranged from 33.1 to 38.6 million bushels. The weekly report showed old-crop export sales of 12.5 million bushels and new-crop sales of 42.0 million bushels. Total shipments of 6.6 million bushels were below the 13.2 million bushels needed this week to stay on pace with USDA’s demand projection of 1.46 billion bushels. This report should be viewed as neutral.

Pre-report estimates for wheat export sales ranged from 11.0 to 14.7 million bushels. The weekly report showed total export sales of 33.8 million bushels, above the 16.1 million bushels needed this week to stay on pace with USDA’s demand projection of 1.0 billion bushels. Shipments of 16.6 million bushels were below the 19.9 million bushels needed this week. This report should be viewed as neutral to bearish.

Market Strategy
The chances for some temperature stress, along with areas of crop stress internationally, may be enough to prevent a free-fall in corn prices for now. With the domestic (corn) ending stocks-to-use ratio near 10.3 percent, the tightest level since the ‘03/‘04 marketing year, there remains little margin for error providing record-setting demand estimates prove true. It is also possible that global corn production could cut into an already tight world stocks-to-use ratio, according to private sources. Currently, Dec ’10 corn futures are trading at $3.98; Dec ‘11 corn futures at $4.28; Nov ‘10 soybean futures at $9.87; Nov ‘11 soybeans at $9.90; with Dec ‘10 SRW wheat futures at $6.55; and July ‘11 at $6.88 per bushel.

For technical assistance on making grain marketing decisions contact Carl L. German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist.

Corn Diseases are Showing Up

Friday, August 13th, 2010

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Gray leaf spot and northern corn leaf blight are beginning to appear on the lower leaves on corn. This is especially true on irrigated acres. I am surprised at finding the northern leaf blight since I was always under the impression that it likes wetter, cooler seasons like last year.

Agronomic Crop Insects – July 30, 2010

Friday, August 13th, 2010

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Soybeans
Continue to watch for defoliators as well as spider mites in both full season and double crop soybean fields. In full season soybeans in the pod fill stage, the defoliation threshold drops to 10-15% defoliation. Remember, double crop soybeans cannot tolerate as much defoliation since they often do not reach the leaf area index needed for maximum yields.

You should also scout for stinkbugs and pods worms as we enter the pod set and pod fill stages. Open canopy blooming soybeans will be attractive to egg laying corn earworm moths, especially in drought stressed areas where corn will dry down early. Corn earworm trap catches have started to increase and we are starting to hear about fields to the south with economic levels of corn earworm. However, only time will tell if this will translate into a major podworm outbreak in soybeans in our area. Although we are finding a few corn earworms in full season soybeans, this is not unusual for this time of year and only scouting on a routine basis will tell you if you have an economic problem. In the past, we have used the treatment threshold of 3 corn earworms per 25 sweeps in narrow fields and 5 corn earworms per 25 sweeps in wide row fields (20 inches or greater). These are static thresholds that were calculated for a 10-year average soybean bushel value of $6.28. A better approach to determining a threshold is to access the Corn Earworm Calculator (http://www.ipm.vt.edu/cew/) which estimates a threshold based on the actual treatment cost and bushel value you enter.

For more information on what is happening in soybeans in Virginia – please refer to their Virginia Ag Pest Advisory (http://www.sripmc.org/Virginia/).

Pumpkins, Winter Squash and Gourds Added to Quintec Label

Friday, August 13th, 2010

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Several additional cucurbit crops were added to the Quintec label and the changes are not in the 2010 Vegetable Recommendations book. Quintec is labeled for powdery mildew control on winter squash, gourds and pumpkin in addition to watermelon, cantaloupe and other melons such as honeydew and others. Rates range from 4-6 fl oz/A. See label for details. This is a good powdery mildew fungicide and should be used in rotation with other fungicides for powdery mildew. Be sure to read the label to avoid fungicide resistance.

And the Heat Goes On

Friday, August 13th, 2010

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist; gcjohn@udel.edu

In June we had 12 days with temperatures in the 90s, in July so far we have had 15 days with high temperatures 90°F or higher with 2 of those days at or over 100. What has this meant for vegetable crops in Delaware? First, yields are off in most crops from snap beans to sweet corn. The processing snap bean crop is one of the worst we have had in many years with low tonnage and split sets. Watermelon yields are variable with later planted fields with no middle set (crown and late, not much between). Most vegetable crops are at least 7 days earlier than normal with some running as much as 2 weeks early. We are likely to have a shortage of watermelons in late August and for the Labor Day market. Cantaloupe plantings are coming off early and together. And we have August to come – we need lower temperatures for our lima beans and other fall harvest crops to yield well.

Potato Disease Advisory #18 – July 29, 2010

Friday, August 13th, 2010

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Disease Severity Value (DSV) Accumulation as of July 28, 2010 is as follows:
Location: Art and Keith Wicks Farm, Rt 9, Little Creek, Kent County
Green row: May 6

  LATE BLIGHT EARLY BLIGHT
Date Daily DSV Total DSV Spray Recs Accumulated
P- days*
7/1–7/5 0 42 10-days 444
7/6-7/7 0 42 10-days 449
7/8 1 43 10-days 454
7/9 8 51 7-days 462
7/10 0 51 7-days 471
7/11-7/12 0 51 7-days 484
7-12-7/13 3 54 7-days 490
7/13–7/14 10 64 7-days 499
7/15-7/16 1 65 7-days 508
7/17-7/20 0 65 10-days 526
7/20-7/21 1 66 10-days 530
7/22-7/24 0 66 10-days 540
7/25-7/26 2 68 10-days 552
7/26-7/28 0 68 10-days 565

 

There have been no new reports of late blight in the region since last week when we reported that late blight was found in a potato field north of Bridgeton, NJ.

If you still have green foliage, maintain fungicide applications.

For specific fungicide recommendations, see the 2010 Delaware Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations Book.

Color in Fruiting Vegetables

Friday, August 13th, 2010

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist; gcjohn@udel.edu

I have had interesting conversations recently regarding the fruit color in pickling cucumbers. Processors want a dark green color and eastern grown pickles often are much lighter in color than ideal for processor needs. There has been considerable research on the development of color in different types of fruits and the physiology is often complex. The following are some of the major factors affecting color in fruiting vegetables.

Genetics
The primary factor affecting fruit color is genetics. Vegetable cultivars are bred and selected for specific color attributes in fruit – dark or light, immature color, ripe color, blush over background. The expression of this genetically determined fruit color can be modified somewhat by environmental and cultural conditions.

Chlorophyll and Other Pigment Production
The amount pigments produced will determine ultimate color. Chlorophylls, carotenoids, and flavonoids (such as anthocyanins) are the pigments produced by plants that give specific colors. Anything that reduces the production of pigments will result in reduced color. Chlorophyll gives the green color for cucumbers, zucchini, green peppers and other green fruit. Chlorophyll production can be impacted by many factors. Under high populations or heavy leaf cover, less chlorophyll is produced in shaded fruits and therefore they are lighter in color. On the other hand, over exposure of fruits subjected to high temperatures will result in degradation of chlorophyll and sun scalding. In fruits that develop red, orange, yellow, or purple colors, light is also critical for good color development. It is critical to maintain a balance between enough leaf cover to prevent over-heating, pigment destruction, and sun scalding with enough light penetration to develop color.

The chlorophyll molecule; apart from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; also contains nitrogen and magnesium. Production of all pigments requires enzymes that contain nitrogen and sulfur. Deficiencies of these nutrients can lead to reduction in color.

Pigment production requires significant plant resources (carbohydrates as building blocks and energy sources) so any factors that reduces the production of these resources may have an impact on initial or ripening color. For example, with the hot year we are having, many vegetables will have higher respiration and reduced photosynthesis leading to less food resources to go into fruit pigments, again leading to reduced or less intense color. Other stressors such as drought, insect damage, or loss of leaf area to disease can also lead to poor color because of the reduction in carbohydrate resources to produce pigments.

Ground Contact
Ground contact will result in loss of light sensitive pigments, particularly chlorophyll. Therefore you will often see white or yellow colors on fruits where they touch the ground. For instance, dark rind watermelons will not have much chlorophyll on the ground spot but will still have carotenoids therefore showing the yellow color when ripe. Crops that are trellised or that vine up windbreaks or nearby plants will have more uniform color.

Destruction of Pigments by Pests
Disease organisms, insects and mites can destroy pigments when infecting or feeding on fruits. For example, many plant viruses will cause loss of color, mottled color, or irregular color in fruits.

Plant Hormone Activity
Plant hormones can help maintain or cause deterioration in color depending upon the hormone involved. For example, cytokinins help to maintain green color while elevated ethylene will cause premature yellowing. Plant hormone activity is tied closely to stress and environmental responses.

Vegetable Crop Insects – July 30, 2010

Friday, August 13th, 2010

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Cabbage
As soon as plants are set in the field, be sure to sample for cabbage looper and diamondback larvae. Moths can be found laying eggs in fields. Treatment will be needed before larvae move into the hearts of the plants.

Lima Beans
Continue to scout for spider mites, stink bugs, lygus bugs and corn earworm. As soon as pin pods are present, be sure to watch carefully for plant bug and stinkbug adults and nymphs as well as corn earworm larvae. As a general guideline, treatment should be considered for plant bugs and stink bugs if you find 15 adults and/or nymphs per 50 sweeps. A treatment will be needed for corn earworm if you find one corn earworm larvae per 6 ft-of-row.

Melons
Continue to scout all melons for aphids, cucumber beetles, and spider mites. We are starting to see an increase in aphids in isolated fields. We continue to find fields with beet armyworms and cabbage loopers feeding on the rinds of watermelons.

Pepper
As soon as the first flowers can be found, be sure to consider a corn borer treatment. Depending on local corn borer trap catches, sprays should be applied on a 7-day schedule once pepper fruit is ¼ – ½ inch in diameter. Be sure to check local moth catches in your area by calling the Crop Pest Hotline (in state: 1-800-345-7544; out of state: 302-831-8851) or visiting our website at (http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/traps/latestblt.html). You will also need to consider a treatment for pepper maggot. Be sure to watch carefully for beet armyworm larvae since they can quickly defoliate plants. In addition to beet armyworm feeding on leaves you should also watch for an increase in aphid populations. We are starting to find aphid populations increasing and they can explode quickly, especially where beneficial insect activity is low. As a general guideline, treatment may be needed if you find one or more aphids per leaf and beneficial activity is low.

Snap Beans
As corn borer and corn earworm populations start to increase, you will need to consider treatments for both insect pests. Sprays are needed at the bud and pin stages on processing beans for corn borer control. As earworm trap catches increase, an earworm spray may also be needed at the pin stage. You will need to check our website for the most recent trap catches to help decide on the spray interval between the pin stage and harvest for processing snap beans (http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/traps/latestblt.html and http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/thresh/snapbeanecbthresh.html).

Sweet Corn
Continue to sample all fields from the whorl through pre-tassel stage for corn borers, corn earworms and fall armyworm. We continue to see an increase in whorl infestations of fall armyworm. A treatment should be considered when 12-15% of the plants are infested. Since fall armyworm feed deep in the whorls, sprays should be directed into the whorls and multiple applications are often needed to achieve control. The first silk sprays will be needed for corn earworm as soon as ear shanks are visible. Be sure to check both blacklight and pheromone trap catches for silk spray schedules since the spray schedules can quickly change. Trap catches are generally updated on Tuesday and Friday mornings (http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/traps/latestblt.html and http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/thresh/silkspraythresh.html). You can also call the Crop Pest Hotline (in state: 1-800-345-7544; out of state: 302-831-8851).

Twilight Tour With Bees

Friday, August 6th, 2010

Twilight Tour with Bees
Delaware bees, crop pollination, and conservation
Monday, August 30, 2010     5:30 – 7:30 p.m.
Lister Acres (Hurd Family)
5417 Milford-Harrington Highway
Harrington, DE 19952

● Farm Tour: strawberries, melons, flower buffer strips, Heather Harmon Disque, Gordon Johnson, Emmalea Ernest, Bonnie MacCulloch

● Honey Bees: Dr. Debby Delaney, Bob Mitchell

●  Pesticide Safety: Joanne Whalen and Bill Cissel

● Practicality of conservation practices and making changes, Chuck Hurd

RSVP by August 25 to:
Plant Industries
Delaware Department of Ag
Dover, DE 19901
Phone: 302-698-4577
E-mail:
geri.mcclimens@state.de.us

Presented by the Delaware Department of Agriculture and University of Delaware

Sustainable Vegetable Production Demonstration

Friday, July 23rd, 2010

Tuesday, August 17, 2010     6:00 – 8:00 pm
University of Delaware College of Ag and Natural Resources Newark Farm
(meet at Townsend Hall Parking Lot)
531 S. College Avenue
Newark, DE 19716

This plot demonstrates sustainable growing techniques. This workshop will highlight sustainable vegetable production practices, mulching techniques and integrated pest management.

This meeting is free and everyone interested in attending is welcome.

Please call to register by August 16. To register, request more information or if you require special needs assistance for this meeting, please call our office in advance at (302) 831-2506.

See you there!
Anna Stoops, NCC Extension, Agricultural Extension Agent