Posts Tagged ‘18:25’

WCU Volume 18, Issue 25 – September 3, 2010

Friday, September 3rd, 2010

PDF Version of WCU 18:25 – September 3, 2010

In this issue:

Vegetables
Vegetable Crop Insects
Asparagus Program Deadline Nears
The Southeast Strawberry Expo to be in Virginia Beach Nov 8-10
Brown Marmorated Stinkbug Runs Amok
Cucurbit Downy Mildew Update
Lima Bean Fungicide Update

Agronomic Crops
Agronomic Crop Insects
Soybean Rust Found in North Carolina
Grain Marketing Highlights

General
Fall Control of Perennial Weeds
Cleaning Equipment to Prevent Spreading Weed Problems Around

Announcements
FSA and DDA Crop Insurance Workshops – September 16
Pole Lima Bean Open House – September 21
Field Day for Weed Control in Sustainable or Organic Vegetables – September 30
Regional Women in Ag Conference – January 25-26, 2011

Weather

Field Day for Weed Control in Sustainable or Organic Vegetables

Friday, September 3rd, 2010

Thursday, September 30, 2010     9 AM – 3 PM
University of Delaware
Carvel Research & Education Center
16686 County Seat Highway
Georgetown, DE 19947

This project is funded by Northeast SARE: to examine the integration of cultural practices, cultivation, weed biology and OMRI herbicides. This is a one-day hands-on training program for agricultural educators and farmers interested in:

● Stale seedbed programs to reduce weed competition

● Continuous tillage influence on soil weed seed populations

● Multiyear cover cropping and impact on weed competition

● Basic weed biology (weed seed dormancy/emergence and perennial weed population dynamics) to assist farmers in weed control practices

● Precision cultivation including tractor mounted and manual implements

● Principles of flaming for weed control

● ORMI approved herbicide demonstrations including backpack sprayer operation for precision application

● Mulching techniques for effective weed suppression in vegetable crops

To register contact Karen Adams: 302-856-2585 ext. 540 or adams@udel.edu
Limited enrollment to 40 participants

Farm Service Agency and Delaware Department of Agriculture Crop Insurance Workshops

Friday, September 3rd, 2010

Farm Service Agency and Delaware Department of Agriculture Crop Insurance Workshops
Thursday, September 16, 2010
** Your Choice of Time and Location **

8:00 a.m.
Paradee Center
69 Transportation Circle
Dover, DE 19901
(Coffee and Pastry Refreshments)

6:30 p.m.
Carvel Research and Education Center
16684 County Seat Highway
Georgetown, DE 19947
(UD Creamery Ice Cream and Refreshments)

The new FSA crop disaster program (SURE) recently supplemented Delaware crop insurance loss payments by 20%.  Make certain you know how crop insurance decisions you make right now will affect your 2011 SURE eligibility.

The USDA/RMA recently unveiled a new crop insurance policy for 2011 barley, wheat, corn, grain sorghum and soybeans: called the Common Crop, or COMBO Policy. This new policy replaces Crop Revenue Coverage (CRC) and traditional yield insurance in the state of Delaware. It is important for you to know how the new benefits can affect your operation.

To register for the meetings, or if you would like more information on the workshop, call 302-424-8340, or toll-free at 877-673-2767. The courtesy of your registration ensures enough workshop materials and refreshments are prepared.

Cleaning Equipment to Prevent Spreading Weed Problems Around

Friday, September 3rd, 2010

This summer has been very challenging for weed control so I want to remind you to not spread the problems around the farm. I have seen a number of fields with heavy weed pressure due to escapes. Some of these are suspected to be resistant biotypes, others just hard to control weeds. If a particular weed is giving you headaches, wouldn’t you rather deal with it in only one field rather than all of your fields? Ask yourself, what would you do if you could no longer use the best herbicide for a problem weed. In vegetables, where we only have one or two broadleaf herbicides, what are your options when they are no longer effective?

Granted, weeds that get blown around (like marestail or thistle) or spread (by birds like pokeweed) are difficult to prevent. Nevertheless, many of our problems are due to moving seeds from field to field on equipment; pigweed and lambsquarters are two that come to mind. Take the time to clean the equipment in the field before it gets moved and isolate where those infestations are located. This is true for all fields. A new weed or a resistant biotype does not just take over a field in one year. A few plants get started and they produce seeds which next year leads to more plants and more seeds (see where this is going). Prevent the problems from developing and spreading. Clean the equipment and leave the seeds where you found them.

Fall Control of Perennial Weeds

Friday, September 3rd, 2010

Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu

Fall is the best time to treat perennial weeds because it is the time that plants are best able to move the herbicide to the roots where it will do the most good. When considering fall weed control the emphasis should be on what the patch of weeds will look like next spring or summer not the amount of dead stems this fall. Also, it is important to consider that a fall application will not eradicate a stand of perennial weeds; the fall application will reduce the stand size or the stand vigor. Fall applications of glyphosate are the most flexible treatment for most perennial weeds such as artichoke, bermudagrass, Canada thistle, common milkweed, common pokeweed, dock, hemp dogbane, horsenettle and johnsongrass. Rates of 1 lb acid per acre are consistently the most economical (or about 1.5X the normal use rate for annual weeds). Allow at least 7 days after treatment before tilling, mowing, or planting through the treated area. Banvel at 2 to 4 pints is also labeled for artichoke, bindweeds, dock, hemp dogbane, horsenettle, milkweeds, pokeweed or Canada thistle. Allow 10 days after treatment before disturbing the treated plants. Planting small grains must be delayed after Banvel application 20 days per pint of Banvel applied. Fall herbicide applications should be made to actively growing plants. Allow plants to recover after harvest before treating them. And with all the drought we have had be sure there is good moisture before you treat the weeds. Consider keeping the combine header as high as possible so the weeds are quicker to recover; or combining around the weed patches and then spraying those patches immediately after harvesting. Weed species differ in their sensitivity to frost; some are easily killed by frost (i.e. horsenettle) others can withstand relatively heavy frosts. Check the weeds prior to application to be sure they are actively growing.

Grain Marketing Highlights

Friday, September 3rd, 2010

Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu

FC Stone Lowers US corn, Soy Crop Estimates
(Reuters – September 1) – Commodity brokerage firm FC Stone on Wednesday said it cut its estimate of the U.S. 2010 corn crop to 13.195 billion bushels, with an average yield of 162.9 bushels per acre. The figures were down from Stone’s August corn production estimate of 13.430 billion, with a yield of 165.8 bushels per acre. Stone projected the 2010 U.S. soybean crop at 3.390 billion bushels, down from their 3.428 billion bushel estimate made in August. The firm lowered its soybean yield estimate to 43.5 bushels per acre, from 44.0 last month.

The Linn Group released updated production estimates this week with a corn yield of 160.7, which was down 1.4 bushels per acre versus its August estimate. Their updated soybean production estimate was placed at 43.6 bushels per acre, which was an increase of 0.4 bushels per acre versus their August number. Informa will release their September production estimates on Friday.

In August, USDA’s U.S. corn production forecast was placed at 13.365 billion bushels, with an average yield of 165.0 bushels per acre. Their August soybean production forecast was placed at 3.433 billion bushels, based on an average yield of 44.0 bushels per acre.

Hot and dry weather may have taken its toll on potential 2010 U.S. corn and soybean yields. For the week ending August 29, we did see a one point increase in the good and a one point decrease in the excellent categories for U.S. corn, placing the overall rating at 70 percent good to excellent. The weekly crop condition report for soybeans was unchanged from the previous week at 64 percent good to excellent. It is possible that U.S. crop conditions deteriorated further this week. USDA is scheduled to release updated crop production forecasts next Friday, September 10. Any decline in yield potential after September 1 will not be picked up in USDA’s September production forecasts.

Market Strategy
Currently, Dec ‘10 corn futures are trading at $4.46 per bushel; Nov ‘10 soybean futures at $10.08; and July ‘11 SRW wheat at $7.15 per bushel; oil is higher; and the dollar lower. The Dow is currently trading about 300 points higher than last week. World crop production concerns making headlines will continue to influence the commodity markets in the near term. Therefore, any near term improvement in growing conditions could take harvest prices lower.

For technical assistance in making grain marketing decisions contact Carl L. German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist.

Soybean Rust Found in North Carolina

Friday, September 3rd, 2010

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Steve Koenning, Extension field crops pathologist reported that “Asiatic soybean rust has been identified this morning (8/30) from a research plot at Kinston, NC, in Lenoir County. There were none to very few pustules on any of the leaves inspected, and none were sporulating. We are not sure how the spores got there, or where they came from, since the nearest rust that has been reported so far has been is southern Georgia, and that is 270 (Murphy, NC) to 570 (Elizabeth City, NC) miles away from our North Carolina soybeans.” It was confirmed today by ELISA testing that the rust that was found is Asiatic soybean rust.

This is unusual and not at all in line with the prediction models that have been issued so far. We will continue to monitor this find and see what happens, but with the hot dry weather the spread of any soybean rust is highly unlikely. Most of our soybeans are mature enough that this find should have no impact on DE soybean production. We will see what the current hurricanes might bring us but the amount of soybean rust in the South right now has been the lowest since this monitoring effort began.

To see the ipmPIPE website for more information on soybean rust see: http://sbrusa.net/.

Agronomic Crop Insects – September 3, 2010

Friday, September 3rd, 2010

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Alfalfa
Continue to sample fields on a weekly basis for defoliators including earworm, webworms and all armyworm species. Economic levels of defoliators continue to be found causing damage.

Soybeans
As of this date, economic levels of recently hatched corn earworm larvae have been reported in soybean fields in all 3 Delaware counties. Although Monday’s moth catch showed a slight decrease due to the cooler temperatures over the weekend, these new larvae are a result of the high trap catches over the previous 7 day period. With the recent return of warmer weather, fields will still need to be scouted for corn earworm larvae, especially double crop soybeans. When selecting an insecticide, be sure to check all labels for the days from last application to harvest as well as other restrictions.

There are also a number of defoliators still present in full season soybeans including bean leaf beetles, grasshoppers, and isolated areas of green cloverworms. The pest complex varies from field to field. The threshold should be reduced if a mixed population is present. As a reminder, both bean leaf beetles and grasshoppers can also feed on pods.

As of yesterday, we have documented the presence of brown marmorated stink bugs (BMSB) in a soybean field near Harrington, DE. This would be the first occurrence in Kent County. We did find it for the first time earlier in the season on soybeans in New Castle County. Although this stinkbug has caused significant damage to fruit and vegetable crops throughout the Mid-Atlantic region, little is known about the damage it causes in soybeans, as well as what the treatment threshold would be. The following links provide good information on the biology and identification of this stinkbug species: http://www.usapple.org/industry/treetac/stinkbug_factsheet121903.pdf; http://njaes.rutgers.edu/stinkbug/

Soybean Loopers in Soybeans
We starting to hear reports of “loopers” in some fields and at least in one case the defoliation was significant. As indicated in past newsletters, soybeans loopers are a migratory pest and in the states to our south resistance to pyrethroids has been documented. We also have cabbage loopers (also a migratory insect pest) present in some fields which are generally controlled by pyrethroids. Identification can be difficult because although there is a “black footed” phase of the soybean looper there is also a “ green phase” that can be confused with cabbage loopers. One characteristic that might help is the presence of microspines on soybean loopers that are not present on cabbage loopers; however, you will need high magnification to see the microspines.

The following is information from Ames Herbert in Virginia’s recent Ag Pest Advisory that provides information about what is happening with soybean loopers in Virginia:

Looper infestations over most of the state- Soybean loopers are now being reported in soybean fields across much of the eastern side of the state. In past years they were mostly confined to southeastern counties. This infestation has broken all the records in terms of intensity (as many as 100+/15 sweeps in some fields) and geography (now being reported from Middle Peninsula and Northern Neck counties). This must be due to the persistent hot, dry weather, and the high percentage of fields previously treated with insecticides. Loopers are easy to identify but there is some confusion about their color. Soybean loopers have both a green and a black color phase We are seeing both color phases in our samples. There may be some cabbage loopers (a completely different species) mixed in, but we have not verified this. There are no exact thresholds for loopers in soybean so treatment should be based on the amount of leaf feeding in relation to the size of the total canopy. But, a very loose rule of thumb could be that 20 or more per 15 sweep net sweeps may constitute a threat. Fewer than that, especially in tall, full canopy fields probably does not constitute a threat. Some fields are getting close to maturity with pods and leaves beginning to yellow. Loopers are not a threat to those fields. Pyrethroids should not be figured into a looper treatment decision. They are less than effective.”

Be sure to look at the following link for pictures of both color phases of this insect. http://www.sripmc.org/Virginia/

Small Grains
With the increase in no-till wheat acreage as well as our typical rotation of wheat following corn, it will be important to consider a number of insect pests that can present problems. The following article provides a good review of insect pests that pose a threat to wheat in the fall including aphids, the wheat curl mite, Hessian fly and fall armyworm. (http://www.uky.edu/Ag/kpn/kpn_08/pn080825.htm#wheins). In addition to the insect pests listed in this article, true armyworms have been a pest in the past, as well as slugs, if we have a wet fall.

Lima Bean Fungicide Update

Friday, September 3rd, 2010

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

I was disappointed to learn that our 24c special local needs label for Phostrol fungicide for downy mildew has expired. This means that it is not registered for use on lima beans in Delaware. NuFarm Americas is pursuing labeling of Phostrol for legume vegetables, including limas, so by next season we may not need the 24c label to use this product. The active ingredients in Phostrol are mono- and di-potassium salts of phosphorous acid, this is one of several fungicides that we call phosphonate fungicides. These same ingredients are found in Prophyte and K-phite which have labels for use on beans for downy mildew. I have tested Phostrol and a product that was never marketed here called Fungi-phite — both are excellent for downy mildew control. I would feel very safe to say the other labeled products with these same active ingredients should perform as well. I have Prophyte in my trial this year so I will be able to say for sure, if the test is successful.

Cucurbit Downy Mildew Update – September 3, 2010

Friday, September 3rd, 2010

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

The weather has not been favorable for continued infection and spread. The risk map at http://cdm.ipmpipe.org indicates our area as low risk at the present time. If Hurricane Earl should produce some much needed rain, risk of infection would increase.