Posts Tagged ‘18:3’

WCU Volume 18, Issue 3 – April 2, 2010

Thursday, April 1st, 2010

PDF Version of WCU 18:3 – April 2, 2010

In this issue:

Vegetables
Season Extension Considerations
Greenhouse Sanitation and Inspection is Important for Disease Management in Vegetable Transplant Production
Seed Treatment and New Selected Fungicides and Bactericides Labeled for Greenhouse Use Tables in 2010 Recommendations Guide
Ag Guide Signs Now Available to Farmers to Attract Agritourism Visitors

Agronomic Crops
Agronomic Crop Insects
Sclerotinia Crown and Stem Rot of Alfalfa
Grain Marketing Highlights

Announcements
You are Invited to a Public Meeting on the FDA Produce Food Safety Rule – April 7
Free Tour of Horse Barn Facilities at University of Delaware – April 19
Is It Arthritis or…Is It Lyme Disease? Arthritis and Farming Workshop – April 30
Local Farmers Wanted for Western Sussex Farmer’s Market


Weather

Free Tour of Horse Barn Facilities at University of Delaware

Thursday, April 1st, 2010

Monday, April 19, 2010      6:00 p.m.
508 South Chapel Street, Newark, DE

The following individuals will be hosting the barn tour and available to answer visitor questions:

Dr.Carissa Wickens,
Assistant Professor of Equine Science

Susan Truehart Garey
Extension Agent

Dr. Richard Taylor
Extension Agronomy Specialist

Anna Stoops
Cooperative Extension Educator

For information or to register, call Stan Vonasek (302) 684-3966.

Is It Arthritis or…Is It Lyme Disease? Arthritis and Farming Workshop

Thursday, April 1st, 2010

Friday, April 30, 2010     7:30 a.m. – noon
MAC Center
909 Progress Circle
Salisbury, MD

Expert Speakers
Medical, arthritis and technology experts and a physical therapist.

Keynote Speaker:
Amber Wolfe with Indiana Arthritis Foundation and National AgrAbility Project

Health Screenings & Health Fair
Bone Density, Balance, Blood Pressure, Skin, Flexibility and more…

Lunch Provided

Please pre-register by calling the Wicomico Extension Office at (410) 749-6141 or AgrAbility toll free number at 877-204-FARM.

Planning Partners:
Mid-Atlantic AgrAbility Project
Wicomico County Extension
MAC Center
Health South

You are Invited to a Public Meeting on the FDA Produce Food Safety Rule

Thursday, April 1st, 2010

Wednesday, April 7, 2010    8:30 a.m.-5:00 p.m.
Marriott Inn and Conference Center
University of Maryland University College
3501 University Blvd E
Hyattsville, Maryland 20783

Breakfast and Lunch Provided

WHO’S INVITED:
Fruit and vegetable growers, extension educators, food retailers, consultants, produce trade association personnel and other interested stakeholders

WHY:
The Food and Drug Administration is going to establish a nation-wide produce safety standard for the growing, harvesting and packing of fresh fruits and vegetables.  Help make certain FDA has all the facts it needs. Come and join a discussion that needs to be informed by your expertise and on-the-ground knowledge

The agenda will include:
Speakers: Dr. Karen Lowell & Dr. Jeffrey Langholz, Authors, Safe and Sustainable: Co-Managing for Food Safety and Ecological Health in California’s Central Coast Region
Topic: Wildlife/Environmental Concerns

Speaker: Dr. Trevor Suslow, University of California, Davis
Topic: Water Quality

Speaker: Dr. Robert L. Gravani, Cornell University
Topic: Worker Health & Hygiene

Speaker: Dr. Michael P. Doyle, University of Georgia
Topic: Compost

Co-sponsored by the National GAPs Program at Cornell University in Rochester, NY, the Food Animal Health Research Program at the Ohio State University in Columbus, OH, the Center for Food Safety at the University of Georgia, and the the Center for Food Safety and Security Systems (CFS3) at the University of Maryland, the meetings will encourage a robust discussion on the science of and practical considerations for growing, harvesting and packing of fresh fruits and vegetables.

The FDA has announced its intention to publish a proposed rule by October 2010.

To Register:
Go to http://www.producesafetyproject.org/discussion_series?id=0006

Grain Marketing Highlights

Thursday, April 1st, 2010

Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu

Prospective Plantings: Corn and Soybean Acreage Increases; Wheat Decreases
No real surprises are reflected in today’s release of USDA’s prospective plantings report. Corn, soybean, and all wheat prospective plantings fell within pre-report trade expectations. Corn and soybean acres fell slightly below the average trade estimates, with all wheat prospective acres slightly above. The planting intentions report is neutral to bullish for corn and soybeans and neutral to bearish for wheat.

U.S. farmers reported their 2010 planting intentions to USDA as of March 1. They intend to plant 88.8 million acres of corn, an increase of 2.32 million acres from last year. Soybean acreage is expected to total 78.1 million acres, an increase of 650,000 acres from last year. All wheat acres are expected to decrease by 5.3 million acres for the 2010 crop season to 53.83 million acres. Average pre-report trade estimates were 88.94 million acres for corn; 78.55 million acres for soybeans; and 53.33 million acres for all wheat.

Quarterly Stocks in All Positions
U.S. corn stocks as of March 1, 2010 totaled 7.694 billion bushels as compared to 6.954 billion bushels a year ago. U.S. soybean stocks were recorded at 1.270 billion bushels compared to 1.302 billion bushels a year ago. All U.S. wheat stocks were reported at 1.352 billion bushels as compared to 1.040 billion bushels a year ago. Average pre-report trade estimates were 7.505 billion bushels for corn; 1.207 billion bushels for soybeans; and 1.364 billion bushels for all wheat. In December, U.S. corn stocks were reported at 10.934 billion bushels; U.S. soybean stocks at 2.337 billion bushels; and U.S. all wheat stocks at 1.765 billion bushels.

Market Strategy
The commodity markets are expected to take the release of today’s reports in stride. The overriding factors expected to impact the markets in the near term are outside market forces (energy prices, dollar value, the Dow) and the weather. Wet conditions currently prevail in the Corn Belt with more rain in the six to ten day forecast. Currently, new crop Dec ‘10 corn futures are trading at $3.77; Nov ‘10 soybean futures $9.14; and July ‘10 SRW wheat futures at $4.76 per bushel.

For technical assistance on making grain marketing decisions contact Carl l. German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist.

Sclerotinia Crown and Stem Rot of Alfalfa

Thursday, April 1st, 2010

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Sclerotinia crown and stem rot of alfalfa is common in Delaware. Following the wet fall and winter with the amount of snow cover that we experienced, be on the lookout for this disease. It was diagnosed recently in nearby MD. The disease usually causes most damage in fall-seeded stands, but single or groups of plants in stands of any age can be killed. Sclerotinia in alfalfa is favored by cool, wet weather in the late fall and snow cover in the winter. The disease can easily go unnoticed if only scattered plants or small patches in fields are killed, and may be mistaken for winterkill.

Infected alfalfa stems with white fungal growth and black sclerotia of the Sclerotinia fungus.

Sclerotinia crown and stem rot of alfalfa is fairly easy to recognize. If you see dead plants or wilting or dead stems in late March or April, look for white moldy growth (especially in wet conditions) and sclerotia. The telltale sign of infection by Sclerotinia is sclerotia on infected tissue. Sclerotia are small, hard, black fungal structures about 1/8 inch in diameter and nearly round or elongated, up to 1/4 inch or more. If you find dead plants killed by Sclerotinia before they completely decompose, you may be able to find white moldy growth and sclerotia on the dead tissues. In other cases, the infection may have infected the crown but not killed the plants. The crown can be soft and covered partially with white moldy growth, the internal crown tissue will have a yellow-brown color, and sclerotia may be scattered over the surface. Wilting and dead stems are another indication of Sclerotinia infections. The lower halves of stems are most frequently infected, and they also often contain white moldy growth and sclerotia. Some or all stems of a plant may be infected. Material adapted for DE from University of Illinois Extension.

Management of sclerotinia crown and stem rot of alfalfa is based on site selection, planting date, crop rotation, and tolerant varieties. If possible, new fields of alfalfa should be established where there is no history of severe sclerotinia crown and stem rot of alfalfa or red clover. Spring planting allows the plants to develop resistance prior to the time that most infection occurs in the late fall. Alfalfa should not be rotated with red clover. Fungicides are not available for control of this disease. Alfalfa cultivars have been developed that can have increased survival and productivity under conditions of low to moderate sclerotinia disease pressure. These may be beneficial where sclerotinia crown and stem rot is a problem.

Agronomic Crop Insects

Thursday, April 1st, 2010

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Alfalfa
Now that the weather has finally started to warm up, you should begin to sample for alfalfa weevil on a weekly basis. Look for small larvae feeding in the tips of plants producing a round, pinhole type of feeding. Once you detect tip feeding, a full field sample should be taken. In general, no treatment should be needed before you observe 50% of the tips with feeding damage. The most accurate way to time an application and try to avoid multiple insecticide applications is to sample stems and determine the number of weevils per stem. A minimum of 30 stems should be collected per field and placed top first in a bucket to dislodge larvae from the tips. Then count the number of weevils per stem. The following thresholds, based on the height of the alfalfa, should be used as a guideline when making a treatment decision: up to 11 inches tall – 0.7 per stem; 12 inches tall – 1.0 per stem; 13 – 15 inches tall – 1.5 per stem; 16 inches tall – 2.0 per stem; and 17 – 18 inches tall – 2.5 per stem. Numerous pyrethroids are now labeled for alfalfa weevil including Baythroid XL, Mustang MAX, Proaxis, Warrior II and numerous generic pyrethroids. Imidan, Lorsban, Lannate and Steward are also labeled for alfalfa weevil control. Be sure to check all labels for rates, restrictions and days to harvest before application. NOTE: The use of Furadan on alfalfa (as well as all other crops) has been cancelled and existing stocks CAN NOT be used.

Field Corn
In addition to black cutworm (which is generally a pest of later planted corn), we can also have a number of other cutworm species present in corn fields at planting time, including the dingy cutworm, claybacked cutworm and variegated cutworm. Information from the Midwest indicates that the claybacked cutworms can cause economic loss in corn. They overwinter as half-grown larvae in the soil so they can get a “jump” on black cutworms when it comes to cutting each spring. Since they are larger in size earlier in the spring, this species can damage very young corn plants. So, scouting fields at plant emergence is important, even if at-planting materials were used, to catch any potential problems. Just a reminder, if you plan to tank-mix an insecticide with an herbicide for black cutworm control, it should be done at, or immediately following planting.

During the winter meeting season, there was a lot of discussion regarding changes in refuge requirements for corn expressing Bt traits for the upcoming 2010 growing season. As of this date, the refuge in a bag strategy has not been approved for any transgenic corn product. However, there has been one significant change in refuge requirements for 2010 involving SmartStax hybrids. Because these hybrids contain 3 different genes for Lepidopteran control and 3 different genes for rootworm control, the EPA has approved a reduction of the standard 20% refuge to 5% refuge. In the last few weeks, I also received new information from Monsanto regarding placement of the refuge for SmartStax hybrids that applies to our area:

“The common refuge can be within or adjacent to the Genuity™ SmartStax™ field. If adjacent, it can be separated by a road, path, ditch , etc., but not by another field. Monsanto recommends planting the corn refuge for Genuity™SmartStax™ as an in-field or adjacent refuge as explained in this IRM/Grower Guide. However, if corn rootworms are not significant within a region, the common refuge may also be planted as a separate block that is within 1/2 mile of the Genuity™ SmartStax™field. This additional option to plant the refuge as a block within 1/2 mile is only available to farmers in the following States: AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, ID, LA, MA, MD, ME, MS, MT, NC, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OR, PA, RI, TN, SC, UT, VA, VT, WA, WV, WY.”  Monsanto’s 2010/IRM Insect Resistance Management Grower Guide will be posted to their webpage in the near future. Also, be sure to contact your seed dealers for a full description of refuge requirements for 2010 for all hybrids that you plan to plant.

Timothy
Since spring green up is underway, be sure to sample fields for cereal rust mite activity. Mites can be found in fields at this time. These mites are very small, so the use of a 20x-magnifying lens may be necessary. If rust mites become a problem, Sevin XLR Plus (which had a 24(c) label on timothy for cereal rust mite management) now has a full section 3 federal label which includes pastures and grasses grown for hay and seed. The following is a link to the new label: http://www.cdms.net/LDat/ld332012.pdf. Be sure to read the label since there is new information on the number of applications per season as well as the days to harvest. For effective rust mite control with Sevin, the use of the higher labeled rate and at least 25 gal/acre of carrier to get good coverage of leaf surfaces generally results in better control.

Wheat
It is time to begin sampling fields for cereal leaf beetle activity. We are starting to find evidence of adult feeding, so fields should now be scouted for the presence of egg masses. The threshold for cereal leaf beetle has been adjusted to include sampling for eggs, especially in high management wheat fields or areas where problems were experienced the previous year. The eggs are elliptical, about 1/32 inch long, orange to yellow in color when first laid, changing to a burnt orange prior to hatching. Check our website for pictures of cereal leaf beetle adults, larvae and eggs: http://www.udel.edu/IPM/facts/clbpictures.htm.

Generally, eggs are laid singly or in small scattered groups (end-to-end) on the upper leaf surface and parallel to the leaf veins. Cereal leaf beetle larvae are brown to black, range in size from 1/32 to 1/4 inch long, and eat streaks of tissue from the upper leaf surface. Since cereal leaf beetle populations are often unevenly distributed within the field, it is important to carefully sample fields so that you do not over or under estimate a potential problem. Eggs and small larvae should be sampled by examining 10 tillers from 10 evenly spaced locations in the field while avoiding field edges. This will result in 100 tillers (stems) per field being examined. Eggs and larvae may be found on leaves near the ground so careful examination is critical. You should also check stems at random while walking through a major portion of the field and sampling 100 stems. The treatment threshold is 25 or more eggs and/or small larvae per 100 tillers. If you are using this threshold, it is important that you wait until at least 50% are in the larval stage (i.e. after 50% egg hatch).

Ag Guide Signs Now Available to Farmers to Attract Agritourism Visitors

Thursday, April 1st, 2010

The Delaware Department of Agriculture (DDA) has announced that farmers are now able to purchase Ag Guide signs from the Delaware Department of Transportation (DELDOT). These signs will help farmers and agribusinesses attract and direct visitors to agritourism destinations such as U-Pick sites, on-farm markets, farmers’ markets, and farm tour sites.

Ag Guide signs may be purchased by farmers who meet eligibility requirements determined by DDA and will be placed within State of Delaware rights-of-way according to guidelines jointly developed by DDA and DELDOT. Guidelines are available at the following: http://www.deldot.gov/information/pubs_forms/manuals/de_mutcd/pdf/ag_tourism_guide_signs.pdf

Applications to purchase Ag Guide signs may be found on the DDA Website (www.dda.delaware.gov) under Hot Topics. Individuals without access to the website may receive the application by contacting:
Lisa Falconetti, DDA Marketing Specialist
Phone: (302) 698.4500
Fax: (302) 697-6287
E-Mail: lisa.falconetti@state.de.us.

Seed Treatment and New Selected Fungicides and Bactericides Labeled for Greenhouse Use Tables in 2010 Recommendations Guide

Thursday, April 1st, 2010

Andy Wyenandt, Assistant Extension Specialist in Vegetable Pathology, Rutgers University; wyenandt@aesop.rutgers.edu

All seed used in transplant production as well as any transplants brought into the greenhouse should be certified “clean” or disease-free. Important diseases such as bacterial leaf spot of pepper and tomato can cause major problems in transplant production if introduced into the greenhouse. Bacterial leaf spot of pepper and tomato can be seed-borne and infested seed can be a major source of inoculums in the greenhouse and cause problems in the field later in the growing season. As a rule for any crop, any non-certified or untreated seed should be treated, if applicable, with a Clorox treatment, or hot water seed treatment, or dusted to help minimize bacterial or damping-off diseases. For more information on seed treatments for specific crops please see Table E-13 on page E46 in Section E of the 2010 Delaware Commercial Vegetable Production Guide.

An updated table for selected fungicides and bactericides labeled for greenhouse use is available in Section E of the 2010 recommendations guide. The table includes a comprehensive list of fungicides and biological agents approved for greenhouse use. Table E-14 can be found on pages E47-48 of the 2010 Delaware Commercial Vegetable Production Guide.

Greenhouse Sanitation and Inspection is Important for Disease Management in Vegetable Transplant Production

Thursday, April 1st, 2010

Andy Wyenandt, Assistant Extension Specialist in Vegetable Pathology, Rutgers University; wyenandt@aesop.rutgers.edu

Proper greenhouse sanitation is important for healthy disease free vegetable transplant production. Efforts need to be made to keep transplant production greenhouses free of unnecessary plant debris and weeds which may harbor insect pests and diseases. All equipment, benches, flats, plug trays and floors should be properly disinfested prior to use and efforts need to be taken throughout the transplant production season to minimize potential problems. Any weeds in or around the greenhouse structure should be removed prior to any production. Any transplant brought into the greenhouse from an outside source needs to be certified ‘clean’, as well as, visually inspected for potential insects and diseases once it reaches your location. Remember, disinfectants, such as Clorox or hydrogen dioxide products (Zerotrol-for commercial greenhouses, garden centers and Oxidate-commercial greenhouse and field), kill only what they come into direct contact with so thorough coverage and/or soaking is necessary. The labels do not specify time intervals for specific uses, only to state that surfaces be “thoroughly wetted”. Therefore labels need to be followed precisely for different use patterns (i.e. disinfesting flats vs. floors or benches) to ensure proper dilution ratios. Hydrogen dioxide products work best when diluted with water containing little or no organic matter and in water with a neutral pH.