Posts Tagged ‘18:9’

WCU Volume 18, Issue 9 – May 14, 2010

Friday, May 14th, 2010

PDF Version of WCU 18:9 – May 14, 2010

In this issue:

Vegetables
Vegetable Crop Insects
Transplant Shock
Potato Disease Advisory #1 – May 13, 2010
Late Blight of Potato
Grower’s Guide to Understanding the DMI or SI Fungicides (FRAC Code 3)

Agronomic Crops
Agronomic Crop Insects
Fusium Head Blight Forecast and Alert System
Grain Marketing Highlights

General
USDA Encourages Landowners to Sign Up Now for Conservation Stewardship Program

Announcements
2010 Strawberry Twilight Meeting – May 19
Pasture Walk: Weed Control and Keeping Your Grass Seedlings Alive – May 21
Agronomic Crops Twilight Tailgate Session – May 26
Livestock Pasture Walk – June 9
Pea Twilight Meeting – June 10
Soybean Cyst Nematode Workshop – August 3
Looking for an Enterprising Vegetable Grower

Weather

 

Livestock Pasture Walk

Friday, May 14th, 2010

Wednesday, June 9, 2010     6:00 – 8:00 p.m.
DSU, Hickory Hill Research Farm
Route 42, West of Cheswold, DE

Come learn techniques for good pasture management for livestock!

Experts will be on hand from the University of Delaware, Delaware State University and the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) to answer your questions!

Please bring a folding chair.

NM and CCA credits will be available.

This meeting is free and everyone interested in attending is welcome.

To register, request more information or if you require special needs assistance for this meeting, please call our office in advance at (302) 831-2506.  Call to register by June 7.

See you there!

Anna Stoops
NCC Extension, Agricultural Extension Agent

Pasture Walk: Weed Control and Keeping Your Grass Seedlings Alive!

Friday, May 14th, 2010

Friday, May 21, 2010     10:00 a.m.- noon
David Greene Farm
2014 White Hall Road
White Hall, MD 21161

Most grass seedlings do come up, and as the old parable implies, different things happen to them.  The first months of management are just as important as the initial seeding.  The Maryland Grazers Network is offering an in-field follow-up for those who planted in early April. We will see how well the stand has germinated and discuss the next steps to help get this planting fully established. 

We will spend some time on simple weed identification and will discuss chemical weed control and organic alternatives and how to determine if you have a weed problem that will threaten your grass planting.  We also will discuss the proper time to return animals to a pasture and what fertilizer treatments are appropriate for what is planted.  Time also will be spent discussing management techniques, such as rope wicking weeds and when that might be necessary and practical.  We also will look at management of perennial vs. annual weeds in a pasture.

We encourage all who want to learn how to give your seedling grass the best chance to establish to attend.  The pasture walk will be held at the David Greene sheep farm in Baltimore County, Maryland. 

The discussions will cover all types of forage plantings for beef, sheep, horses, and goats.   We will have follow-up meetings to talk about on-going establishment treatment needs.  We plan to have these at the site about once a month.   We will announce follow-up dates at the event. 

Please call (443) 482-2922 to register.  

To get to the meeting, from the Baltimore Beltway take 81 North to exit 31 North onto Middletown Road East towards Parkton.  Then take a right on MD 45 (South on York Road).  Next turn left onto Weisburg Road; turn right to stay on Weisburg Road. Then turn left onto White Hall Road.  Travel about 4 minutes to the David Greene Farm at 2014 White Hall Road, White Hall, MD 21161.

Grain Marketing Highlights

Friday, May 14th, 2010

Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu

USDA’s May Supply/Demand Report Highlights
The May report continued the tabulations and projections for ‘09/‘10 and included the first official projection of U.S. and world production for the 2010/2011 marketing year. Data from the March 31 planting intentions report and revised World Outlook Board yield estimates were used to compile the May projections. What did we learn from the release of USDA’s May Supply and Demand report? First, ending stock estimates for the current marketing year were reduced for corn, and unchanged from a month ago for soybeans and wheat. Ending stocks for ‘09/‘10 U.S. corn were projected at 1.736 billion bushels, 161 million bushels less than a month ago. U.S. ending stocks for soybeans remain unchanged at 190 million bushels, and unchanged for all wheat at 950 million bushels. U.S. ending stock estimates for the 2010/2011 marketing year were corn at 1.818 billion bushels, soybeans at 365 million bushels, and all wheat at 997 million bushels.

World ending stock estimates for the ‘09/‘10 marketing year for corn were estimated at 147.04 million metric tons, soybeans at 63.76 MMT, and all wheat at 193.37 MMT. World ending stock estimates for the 2010/2011 marketing year were projected at 154.21 million metric tons for corn, 66.09 MMT for soybeans, and 198.09 MMT for all wheat.

Brazilian soybean production for the ‘09/‘10 marketing year is now projected at 68 MMT, .5 MMT increase from last month’s estimate. The estimate for Argentine soybean production was left unchanged at 54 MMT. Brazilian corn production and Argentine corn production were left unchanged from last month, estimated at 53.5 and 21.0 MMT, respectively.

Market Strategy
As of May 9, U.S. corn planting was reported to be 81 percent complete, as compared to the five year average of 62 percent. The corn crop was reported as 39 percent emerged as compared to 21 percent for the five year average. U.S. soybeans were reported as 30 percent planted, compared to the average of 19 percent, and 7 percent emerged, also ahead of the average. Two-thirds of the spring wheat crop was planted, in line with the average, while almost 40 percent had emerged, as compared to the five year average of 28 percent. For winter wheat, 40 percent was reported as headed as compared to the average of 43 percent. Crop conditions for winter wheat were reported as in line with the average and much better than last year.

The weekly export sales report, released this morning, was mixed with corn exports, now projected at 1.950 billion bushels reported as neutral to bullish, soybean exports starting to lag while still running ahead of USDA’s revised projection of 1.455 billion bushels, and wheat exports reported at levels that might not achieve USDA’s projection of 865 million bushels for the ‘09/‘10 marketing year.

Currently, Dec ‘10 corn futures are trading at $3.92; Nov ‘10 soybean futures at $9.37; with July ‘10 SRW wheat at $4.91 per bushel. Price direction for the 2010 row crop production year now becomes almost entirely dependent upon weather developments throughout the growing season.

For technical assistance on making grain marketing decisions contact Carl L. German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist.

USDA Encourages Landowners to Sign Up Now for Conservation Stewardship Program

Friday, May 14th, 2010

DOVER, Del., May 11, 2010 – USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Acting State Conservationist Jay Mar recently announced that Delaware landowners are encouraged to apply for the Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP). Authorized in the 2008 Farm Bill, CSP offers payments to producers who maintain a high level of conservation on their land and who agree to adopt higher levels of stewardship. Eligible lands include cropland, pastureland, and non-industrial forestland. The deadline to be considered for the next ranking and funding period is June 11, 2010.

“As a result of NRCS assistance, many private landowners in Delaware have voluntarily applied conservation practices with benefits to water quality, soil health, wildlife habitat and more,” said Mar. “CSP recognizes these producers and provides them with additional resources to move to the next level of natural resource conservation.”

Eligible producers may submit an application to enroll eligible land in CSP on a continuous basis. Producers are encouraged to apply for CSP now to ensure their applications will be considered during the next funding and ranking period. However, they can make their final decision to participate in the program once the CSP final rule is issued. The final rule will establish the policies and procedures for the program.

CSP offers payments for adding conservation practices and maintaining and managing existing conservation practices. CSP is offered in all 50 states, District of Columbia, and the Pacific and Caribbean areas through continuous sign-ups with announced cut-off application dates for ranking periods. Enrollment is capped nationally at 12.7 million acres per year.

Potential applicants are encouraged to use the CSP self-screening checklist to determine if the new program is suitable for their operation. The checklist highlights basic information about CSP eligibility requirements, contract obligations and potential payments. The checklist and additional information on CSP are available from local USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service offices or on the NRCS Web site at http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/new_csp/csp.html.

For more information about other NRCS programs and services in Delaware, visit www.de.nrcs.usda.gov or call Jayme Arthurs, (302) 678-4191 or Dastina Johnson, (302) 678-4179.

Fusarium Head Blight Forecast and Alert System

Friday, May 14th, 2010

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

The risk of Fusarium head blight or scab is low for the next several days. There is some rainfall in the forecast for Friday and early next week with warmer temperatures, but until now there has not been enough moisture to produce spores for infection. Most of the wheat by next week should be past flowering and therefore not at risk unless it is very late. There are scattered reports of low levels of leaf rust on Delmarva so scouting should continue.

I just became aware that wheat growers can sign up for scab alerts. See the following information:

Producers, crop consultants, grain processors and others can sign up for the alerts by going to the following web site address: http://scabusa.org/fhb_alert.php. The alerts will be sent out to one’s cell phone or email, depending upon the user’s preference. Frequency and timing of alerts will depend upon a given area’s risk for severe scab – which can vary widely, depending on environmental conditions.

The purpose of the alert system, is to give growers and affiliated industry personnel better advanced notice of potential outbreaks and the risk of scab in their area, thus allowing for timely treatment of fields with fungicides. “We are aware that many farmers do not have easy or convenient access to the Internet, but most of them carry a cell phone,” says Dave Van Sanford, USWBSI co-chair. “We wanted a system that would send an alert to their cell phone, prompting them to take an appropriate action – such as going to the USWBSI website, checking with their county agent, chemical dealer or consultant, or simply looking at their crop to check its stage of development. Our hope is that the alerts will lead to some action that will reduce the impact of head scab on the crop.”

The alert system is tied in with the Fusarium Head Blight Risk Assessment Tool hosted by Pennsylvania State University, Kansas State University, Ohio State University and the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative. This web site – www.wheatscab.psu.edu/riskTool_2010.html – provides detailed, daily updated information on scab risk in various U.S. small grain production regions. The FHB Assessment Tool is supplemented by commentaries from various state university plant disease specialists regarding environmental conditions and the presence of scab (or lack thereof) in their state. These commentaries provide the content behind the FHB alerts.

Agronomic Crop Insects – May 14, 2010

Thursday, May 13th, 2010

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Alfalfa
In addition to checking for weevils feeding on re-growth, be sure to begin checking all fields for leafhoppers within one week of cutting. Spring planted fields should also be sampled since they are very susceptible to damage. Once the damage is found, yield loss has already occurred. The treatment thresholds are 20 per 100 sweeps on alfalfa 3 inches or less in height, 50 per 100 sweeps in 4-6 inch tall alfalfa and 100 per 100 sweeps in 7-11 inch tall alfalfa.

Field Corn
Be sure to sample all fields for cutworms, slugs and true armyworm. For cutworms, fields should be sampled through the 5-leaf stage for damage. We are finding leaf feeding by cutworms as well as slug damage, so be sure you do not confuse the damage. If slugs are damaging plants, you will be able to see “slime trails” on the leaves. As a general guideline for cutworms, a treatment should be considered in 1-2 leaf stage corn if you find 3 percent cut plants or 10% leaf feeding. If cutworms are feeding below the soil surface, it will be important to treat as late in the day as possible, direct sprays to the base of the plants and use at least 30 gallons of water per acre.

With the recent cooler, wet weather in some areas of the state, we are starting to see an increase in slug damage. Newly hatched juvenile slugs can be found under residue in no-till fields. The use of Deadline M-Ps (or other available metaldehyde baits) should be considered if the weather remains cool and wet and damage is increasing.

You should also sample no-till fields for true armyworms, especially where a grass cover or volunteer small grains were burned down at planting. As a general guideline, a treatment may be needed for armyworms if 25% of the plants are infested plants with larvae less than one inch long.

We have also seen an increase in bird damage that is sometimes confused with cutworm damage. You can distinguish bird damage from cutworm damage by the pattern in the field. Generally longer strips of damaged plants, plants pulled out of the ground, and/or plants cut high that are compressed at the base of the stems, all indicate bird damage. Although birds can cut plants off at the soil surface, they tend to pull plants out of the ground. In addition, if you look closely you will see “bird prints” near the missing plants or holes where birds have pulled plants out of the ground.

Lastly, there are a number of new transgenic corn traits that should be available to producers in 2011. The following link from Ron Hammond in Ohio which provides a good summary of these new traits: http://corn.osu.edu/newsletters/2010/2010-12/new-transgenic-corn-products

Small Grains
Continue to scout fields for cereal leaf beetles, armyworms and sawflies as well as aphids feeding in the heads of small grains. With the recent cooler weather, the beneficials may not help to reduce aphid populations. Also, with the recent weather patterns, the hatch of armyworm larvae will be staggered –i.e. there will be large and small larvae in fields. It is important that you scout fields on a weekly basis until harvest for armyworm and sawfly larvae. Although armyworm can attack both wheat and barley, they can quickly cause significant losses in barley. Since populations of all of these insects vary from field to field, fields should be scouted to determine if economic levels are present. As a general guideline, if multiple insects are present, the threshold for each insect should be reduced by one third.

Soybeans
In full season no-till soybeans as well as in conventional fields where a cover is worked under before planting, seed corn maggot can be a potential problem. These situations are attractive to egg laying flies. Control options are limited to the commercial applied seed treatments (Cruiser/Cruiser MAXX, Gaucho/Trilex 6000 and Innovate) and one hopper box material containing permethrin (http://www.tracechemicals.com/trace/labels/KernelGuardSupremelabel.pdf ). Labels state early season protection against injury by seed corn maggot.

In recent years, slugs have also been a significant problem in no-till soybean fields. We can find small slugs that have recently hatched under surface residue. Slug damage can be severe on soybeans if slugs are actively feeding when germination occurs since the soybean plant’s growing point is within the cotyledons as they emerge. If slugs are actively feeding when germination occurs, they can feed on the cotyledons and cause death of the soybean plant. Therefore, compared to corn, it can be difficult to time an application of a bait treatment. Fields should be scouted and tillage considered if you can easily find slugs under the surface trash and weather remains cool and wet. This option has worked in recent years but only if there is a period of time between tillage and planting. In addition, if slug numbers are high, it may not get enough of them but overall it should help. Another option might be planting later into warm soils to promote rapid early growth and help young plants outgrow the slug pressure. Delayed planting can help if the weather turns warm and dry; however, this option was not very effective during the 2009 season since the weather remained cool and wet throughout the summer. Unfortunately, we still have a lot to learn about slug management in soybeans.

As the earliest beans emerge, you should also watch for bean leaf beetles and grasshoppers. Bean leaf beetle adults feed on the cotyledons and first true leaves. In recent years, bean leaf beetle populations have been heavier in the Mid-Atlantic on the earliest planted beans. Damage appears as scooped out pits on the cotyledons and leaf feeding appears as distinctive, almost circular holes, which are scattered over the leaf. Even though the leaf feeding by first-generation beetles on soybean leaves has seldom resulted in economic yield losses, fields should be scouted carefully to assess the damage. In areas of the state where bean pod mottle has been identified, it is the overwintering beetle that vectors the virus. The second-generation feeding on pods in late summer can cause significant damage. There are numerous treatment guidelines available. However, as a general guideline, a treatment may be needed if you observe a 20 – 25% stand reduction and/or 2 beetles per plant from cotyledon to the second trifoliate stages. The Iowa State economic threshold for cotyledon stage is four beetles per plant. Once plants reach the V1 and V2 stages, their thresholds increase to 6.2 (V1 stage) and 9.8 (V2 stage) beetles/plant. These treatment thresholds should be reduced if virus is present or you suspected virus the previous season.

As far as the commercial applied seed treatments (Cruiser/Cruiser MAX, Gaucho/Trilex 6000 and Innovate), they are labeled to provide early protection against injury from bean leaf beetle. However, these seed treatments will not limit later population growth in mid to late summer. For growers who choose to control overwintering bean leaf beetles to limit virus transmission, information from the Midwest indicated that an early season foliar spray after plant emergence, followed by a second spray in July for the first generation beetles might be tried. Because seed treatments will offer control of the overwintered beetles and reduce feeding injury, growers might want to use seed treatments to replace the early season foliar spray.

As far as grasshoppers, in general, the treatment threshold for grasshoppers is 1 per sweep and 30% defoliation. Multiple applications are often needed for grasshopper control.

Grower’s Guide to Understanding the DMI or SI Fungicides (FRAC Code 3)

Thursday, May 13th, 2010

Andy Wyenandt, Assistant Extension Specialist in Vegetable Pathology, Rutgers University; wyenandt@aesop.rutgers.edu

The DMI (DeMethylation Inhibitors) or Sterolbiosynthesis Inhibiting (SI) fungicides belong to FRAC code 3 which include the triazoles and imidazoles. Some of these fungicides are commonly known as Folicur (tebuconazole), Tilt (propiconazole), Rally (myclobutanil) and Procure (triflumizole).

SIs work by inhibiting the biosynthesis of ergosterol, which is a major component of the plasma membrane of certain fungi and is needed for fungal growth. Resistance by fungi to the DMI fungicides (FRAC code 3) has been characterized and is generally known to be controlled by the accumulation of several independent mutations, or what is known as ‘continuous selection’ or ‘shifting’, in the fungus. Hence, in any given field population the sensitivity to the DMI fungicide by the fungus may range from extremely high (highly sensitive, i.e. will be controlled by fungicide) to moderate (partially sensitive) or low (mostly resistant to fungicide). This type of resistance is also known as quantitative resistance. With quantitative resistance there are different levels of resistance to the fungicide due to independent mutations, which is unlike the target mutations that occur in qualitative resistance associated with the QoI fungicides (FRAC code 11).

Because different levels of resistance to the FRAC code 3 fungicides may exist in the field, the fungal population may behave differently to different rates of the SI fungicide being applied. Therefore, it is suggested that using a higher rate of a FRAC code 3 fungicide, may improve control when lower rates have failed. For example, let’s say that a powdery mildew population on pumpkin has 25% high, 50% moderate, and 25% low sensitivity to a DMI fungicide. If fungicide is applied at the low rate, only 25% of the population (highly sensitive) may be controlled. Whereas, if the high rate was used, 75% of the population may have been controlled. The main point here is that if low rates of FRAC code 3 fungicides have been used and control seems to be weakening, bumping to a higher rate may improve control. Unfortunately, it is difficult to determine what proportion of the powdery mildew population is sensitive or not sensitive by looking at the field until you have begun spraying. The best advice, if you are using low rates and think those rates are not working like you feel they should, the rate should be bumped up to the high rate the next time the fungicide is sprayed, and if the high rate doesn’t work it may be safe to assume the fungal population has grown mostly resistant. Importantly, if the high rate fails, whether you bumped up to a high rate or started with one, and control does not seem adequate do not continue to use the fungicide. Recognizing if and when fungicide chemistries are failing and when fungicide resistance is developing is critical to producing successful crops and why scouting on a regular basis, at least before and after each fungicide application, is important. Regular scouting can help reduce unwarranted and ineffective fungicide applications and help reduce wasted costs. Remember to always tank mix FRAC code 3 fungicides with protectant (M) fungicides (i.e. chlorothalonil, mancozeb) to help reduce the chances for fungicide resistance developing. Always apply FRAC code 3 fungicides according to label rates and resistantce management recommendations and always be aware of the fungicide rates you are applying.

Late Blight of Potato

Thursday, May 13th, 2010

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Adapted for Delaware from an article written by Dr. Steve Rideout, VPI &SU

Causal Organism
Late blight of potato is caused by the airborne fungus (Oomycete) Phytophthora infestans. Late blight of potato is sporadic on the Eastern Shore of Virginia, but can be devastating if conditions favoring the disease persist. It has not been a production problem in Delaware for many years, although two fields last season had limited infections that were controlled. Disease is favored by moderate temperatures (60-80°F) with excessive rainfall or dews leading to high leaf moisture. Also of note, late blight of potato was the disease that caused the Irish Potato Famine in the 1840s which led to the immigration or death of over 3 million Irish. The late blight pathogen can also parasitize tomatoes.

Symptomology
Infected potato leaves show ‘greasy’ lesions that usually originate from the tip of the leaves (Figures 1). During periods of high moisture gray sporulation can be seen on infected leaves. If infection persists or becomes systemic, tubers may become discolored exhibiting black and greasy lesions (Figure 2). Infected tubers may also transmit the disease to subsequent crops if they are used as seed pieces. In severe infections, complete defoliation can occur if appropriate disease control measures are not employed.

Control
Use certified seed pieces to ensure that you are not transmitting late blight. Prior to disease appearance, growers should utilize a protectant fungicide (i.e. chlorothalonil or mancozeb) once sprays are either deemed necessary by the WISDOM prediction model or if the disease is present within the region. Once the disease is either present on Delmarva, surrounding areas or within your fields, systemic fungicides should be used for disease suppression. Systemic fungicides recommended for late blight control include: Curzate, Forum, Gavel, Omega, Presidio, Previcur Flex, Ranman, Revus Top, Revus, Super Tin, and Tanos. As always, follow pesticide labels for rates and usage.

Potato Disease Advisory #1 – May 13, 2010

Thursday, May 13th, 2010

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Late blight Advisory

This is the first report for 2010 in Weekly Crop Update. If you would like a FAX or email report please call 302-831-4865, or email bobmul@udel.edu and request it.

We are using the E-WEATHER SERVICE from SkyBit, Inc. as we have in the past. The service determines specific requested weather parameters (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) based on calculations of data from the nearest National Weather Service stations. This weather data is used in the WISDOM software program for predicting late blight and early blight and making spray recommendations. Our location this year is:
Location: Art and Keith Wicks Farm, Rt 9, Little Creek, Kent County
Greenrow: May 6

Planting was delayed due to the wet weather early this spring so we are about a week behind last year when comparing greenrow on early planted potatoes. Disease severity values have been accumulating very slowly this year especially compared to last season. The threat of late blight from seed infection is low, but there was some in Maine last season. Be vigilant anyway, given this recent weather pattern. The first late blight fungicide application is recommended once 18 Disease Severity Values (DSVs) accumulate from green row. Green row occurred approximately on May 6, 2010. Please be vigilant and keep a look out for suspect infections on young plants coming from infected seed pieces! Growers opting not to use the forecast system should put the first late blight fungicide application on when the plants are 6 inches tall, and repeat every 7 days. There are numerous fungicides now labeled for late blight control; however, use of mancozeb (Manzate, Penncozeb, or Dithane) is still a very effective early season protective fungicide to use.

Date DSV Total DSV Spray Recommendation
5/1 – 5/10 0 0 none
5/12 3 3 none