Posts Tagged ‘19:15’

WCU Volume 19, Issue 15 – July 1, 2011

Friday, July 1st, 2011

PDF Version of WCU 19:15 – July 1, 2011

In this issue:

Vegetable Crop Insects
Physiological Leaf Cupping and Rolling in Vegetables
Cucurbit Downy Mildew Alert
Downy Mildew on Basil
Late Blight Report
Potato Disease Advisory #12 – June 30, 2011

Section 18 for Brown Marmorated Sting Bug (BMST) Management on Stone and Pome Fruit Approved

Agronomic Crops
Agronomic Crop Insects
Grain Marketing Highlights


Grain Marketing Highlights – July 1, 2011

Friday, July 1st, 2011

Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist;

June 30 U.S. Planted Acreage and Quarterly Grain Stocks
USDA reported corn planted acres at 92.28 million acres, up 5% from last year. This is the second highest planted corn acreage since 1944, exceeded only once in 2007. This exceeds pre-report trade expectations. Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakota, and Minnesota all reported major acreage increases. USDA estimates 84.88 million acres of corn will be harvested, up 3.44 million acres from last year and 92% of planted.

Soybean planted acres were reported to be down 3 % from last year at 75.2 million acres (77.4 million acres were planted last year). Soybean acres were reported to be below trade expectations, on average by about 1.3 million acres. USDA estimates about 74.25 million acres of soybeans will be harvested, down 2.35 million acres from last year.

All wheat planted acres were reported at 56.4 million acres up 5 % from 53.6 million acres planted last year. Although USDA reported planted wheat acres higher than last year, the acreage for harvest is estimated at 47.17 million acres, 463,000 acres less than last year’s harvest.

All cotton, reported at 13.7 million acres, were up 25 % from a year ago. The reported number was slightly higher than pre-report estimates.

U.S. corn stocks in all positions exceeded trade expectations. Soybean and wheat stocks were reported to be within trade estimates. The higher corn stocks are indicative that some rationing has occurred.

Quarterly Grain Stocks
Corn stocks in all positions on June 1, 2011 totaled 3.67 billion bushels, down 15% from the same time last year. On-farm stocks are down 21% from last year, at 1.68 billion. Off-farm stocks, at 1.99 billion, down 9%. The March-May indicated disappearance is 2.85 billion bushels, compared with 3.38 billion last year. The stocks estimate was higher than trade expectations, ranging from 2.998 to 3.515 billion bushels.

Soybean stocks are 8% higher than a year ago, at 619 million bushels. On-farm stocks are down 218 million bushels or 6% from last year. Off-farm stocks, at 401 million bushels, are up 19% from a year ago. Soybean stocks were reported to be within the range of trade expectations.

All wheat stocks totaled 861 million bushels, down 12% from a year ago. On-farm stocks are estimated at 131 million bushels, down 38% from last year. Off-farm stocks at 730 million bushels are down only 5% from last year. Wheat stocks were within pre-report trade expectations, ranging from 791 to 878 million bushels.

ACREAGE (million acres)

6/30/11 Average High Low USDA WASDE 6/9/11 USDA Final 2010
Corn 92.3 90.77 91.50 89.50 90.70 88.19
Soybeans 75.2 76.53 77.19 75.50 76.61 77.40
All Wheat 56.4 56.67 57.60 55.00 57.70 53.60
Spring 13.6 13.35 13.90 12.50 14.43 13.70
Durum 1.7 2.03 2.80 1.31 2.37 2.57
Grain Sorghum 4.6 5.61 5.64 5.58 5.60 5.40
All Cotton 13.7 13.26 14.21 12.55 12.57 10.97

QUARTERLY STOCKS (billion bushels)

  6/1/11 Average High Low 3/1/11 6/1/10
Corn 3.67 3.302 3.515 2.998 6.523 4.310
Soybeans 0.619 0.596 0.632 0.549 1.249 0.571
Wheat 0.861 0.826 0.878 0.791 1.425 0.973
Grain Sorghum 0.080 0.086 0.092 0.080 0.171 0.088
Corn 3.67 3.302 3.515 2.998 6.523 4.310

Market Strategy

The initial reaction to this report is likely to be considered negative, with corn possibly moving limit down. Meanwhile, there isn’t much help coming from outside market forces. Further, the weekly export sales report, released this morning for the week ending June 23, was bearish for soybeans, neutral for corn and wheat. Market attention will now turn to the weather and crop development. Before the open, Dec ‘11 corn futures are $6.50; Nov ‘11 soybean futures $13.23; with July ‘11 SRW wheat at $6.41 per bushel.

For technical assistance on making grain marketing decisions contact Carl L. German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist.


Agronomic Crop Insects – July 1, 2011

Friday, July 1st, 2011

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist;

We continue to see an increase in potato leafhopper populations, both the adult and nymph stages. Remember, the nymphs can quickly cause damage and once yellowing has occurred you have already experienced yield loss. The treatment thresholds are 20 per 100 sweeps on alfalfa 3 inches or less in height, 50 per 100 sweeps in 4-6 inch tall alfalfa and 100 per 100 sweeps in 7-11 inch tall alfalfa. In drought stressed fields, these numbers may need to be reduced by 1/3.

We can find a number of defoliators in full season soybean fields including grasshoppers, green cloverworm, Japanese beetles, oriental beetles and bean leaf beetles. Green cloverworm larvae are light green with three pairs of white stripes running the length of the body. In addition to the three pairs of legs near the head, they have three pairs of fleshy legs near the middle of the body, and one additional pair at the end of the body. Larvae wiggle vigorously when disturbed. Smaller larvae may drop from the leaf when disturbed. Young larvae skeletonize the underside of the leaf. Older larvae chew irregular shaped holes in the leaves and can eat all of the leaf except large veins. Although populations of green cloverworm generally increase in number from July through September, if the weather turns dry, we often see an earlier increase in numbers. Fungal pathogens often crash populations; however, under dry weather conditions this will not occur. As a reminder, double crop soybeans can not tolerate as much defoliation as full season beans so be sure to watch newly emerged fields carefully, especially for grasshoppers.

Some consultants are also seeing an increase in leafhopper populations in seedling stage soybeans. As a general guideline, a control may be needed for leafhoppers if you see plant damage and you find 4 leafhoppers per sweep in stressed fields and 8 per sweep in non-stressed fields.


Section 18 for Brown Marmorated Sting Bug (BMSB) Management on Stone and Pome Fruit Approved

Friday, July 1st, 2011

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist;

This week we received the letter from EPA that they approved our Section 18 request for the use of dinotefuran (Trade Names: Venom from Valent U.S.A. Corporation; Scorpion from Gowan Company, LLC) to control BMSB on stone and pome fruits. This use expires on Oct 15, 2011. Please refer to for more information on use rates and restrictions. Both labels are also available so please contact either David Pyne at the Delaware Department of Agriculture ( or Joanne Whalen ( for more information.


Potato Disease Advisory #12 – June 30, 2011

Friday, July 1st, 2011

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist;

Late blight Advisory

Location: Art and Keith Wicks Farm, Rt 9, Little Creek, Kent County
Greenrow: May 3

Date Late Blight Early Blight Spray Interval Recommendation
DSV Total DSV Accumulated P-days*
6/13 0 66 301 7-days
6/13-6/15 0 66 318 7-days
6/16 1 67 328 7-days
6/17 0 67 336 7-days
6/18-6/19 0 67 352 10-days
6/20-6/22 1 68 377 10-days
6/23 1 69 383 10-days
6/24-6/26 0 69 407 10-days
6/27 1 70 416 10-days
6/28 1 71 424 10-days


Continue to scout fields for symptoms of late blight. Conditions will continue to favor early blight. We have surpassed the 300 P-day threshold for initiating early blight sprays.

Late Blight was reported this week in DE, on the eastern shore VA, and Long Island, New York. The weather conditions have been favorable the past few days but the hot weather forecasted for this weekend should help reduce the threat. The Delaware find near Leipsic in Kent County was a small area at the end of a field next to woods and under power lines that obstructed the aerial application of fungicide applied to the whole field. Late blight specific fungicide has been applied.

For specific fungicide recommendations, see the 2011 Delaware Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations Book.


Late Blight Report

Friday, July 1st, 2011

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist;

Late blight caused by the fungus-like organism, Phytophthora infestans, was confirmed this week in DE, eastern shore VA, and the South Fork on Long Island, NY on potato. See the Potato Disease Advisory. Late blight was confirmed on tomato on Long Island, NY. Growers should be checking fields daily and maintaining preventative fungicide sprays. The weather conditions have been favorable the past few days but the hot weather forecasted for this weekend should help reduce the threat. The Delaware find was a small area at the end of a field next to woods and under power lines that obstructed the aerial application of fungicide applied to the whole field. Late blight specific fungicide has been applied.

For more information on controlling late blight on potato and tomato, see the 2011 Commercial Vegetable Recommendations. In addition to the information in the Commercial Veg Recs guide there is a very good table on fungicides for late blight on tomato and potato from Cornell University summarized by Dr Tom Zitter:


Downy Mildew on Basil

Friday, July 1st, 2011

Kate Everts, Vegetable Pathologist, University of Delaware and University of Maryland;

Basil downy mildew has been reported in two locations in Maryland this week. It was confirmed in Ellicott City, and we received a separate report in Calvert County. Growers should check their plants carefully for disease symptoms. Products that are labeled for Basil Downy mildew are Pro-Phyt, Fosphite, K-Phite, and Quadris. These products have some efficacy on this disease in trials.


Downy mildew infected basil: lower leaf sporulation and yellowing on the upper leaf surfaces


Cucurbit Downy Mildew Alert – July 1, 2011

Friday, July 1st, 2011

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; and Kate Everts, Vegetable Pathologist, University of Delaware and University of Maryland;

Downy mildew was confirmed on seeded cucumbers in Cumberland County, NJ near the city of Vineland. There were no reported downy mildew infections on any transplanted cucurbits in this area. This is the first report of downy mildew on cucurbits in the Mid-Atlantic region this year. Downy mildew has also been increasing in North Carolina the last several weeks. This is a very long leap from NC to NJ if this infection was from air transported spores. Traditionally we can expect downy mildew to arrive here sometime around the 4th of July. DE and MD have sentinel plots for monitoring downy mildew on cucurbits and have been negative for downy so far. These are scouted regularly in addition to reports and samples that we receive from the field. Hopefully we can provide an early warning when it appears here so that timely fungicide applications with downy mildew specific fungicides can be made.

What growers should do:

● Now that downy mildew has been detected in the region growers should be scouting on a daily basis.

● In areas where rainfall has occurred, growers may want to apply targeted fungicides to cucumbers. Tank- mix Presidio, Ranman, or Previcur Flex with a protectant fungicide and alternate sprays with a material with a different mode of action. Because downy mildew has only been found in adjacent states on cucumber, targeted sprays on other cucurbits crops (pumpkin, squash, watermelon, etc.) are not necessary, at this time. Instead scout aggressively and continue a broad-spectrum spray program.

● All abandoned cucumber and summer squash fields should be sprayed with gramoxone or disced under immediately after last harvest to kill the foliage! Abandoned fields left unattended after use will only serve as a source of inoculum for other fields once downy mildew makes its way into our area.

● Please see the 2011 Commercial Vegetable Recommendations Guide for specific fungicide recommendations

● To track the progress of cucurbit downy mildew in the eastern US and to keep up with reports of Downy mildew from other states please visit North Carolina State University’s Cucurbit Downy Mildew Forecasting Center at


Physiological Leaf Cupping and Rolling in Vegetables

Friday, July 1st, 2011

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist;

Leaf cupping and rolling in vegetables can be caused by virus diseases, aphid infestations, herbicides and growth regulators. However, late spring and early summer is the time of the year that we often see leaf cupping and rolling disorders appear in vegetable crops that are not related to pests or chemicals. This can be seen in tomatoes, peppers, potatoes, watermelons, beans, and other crops. This is a physiological disorder that may have many contributing factors.

In tomatoes, leaf roll starts at the margins which turn up, then roll inward, most commonly on the lower leaves. Upward cupping is also found commonly in watermelons and potatoes. Beans, peppers, and other vegetables may cup downwards. Leaves may stay in this rolled or cupped state for a short period of time and then return to normal, or they may remain permanently rolled or cupped. Rolled leaves may become thicker but are otherwise normal. Physiological leaf roll or cupping is often variety dependent with some varieties being more susceptible than others.

There are several possible causal factors for physiological leaf roll or cupping. Water relations are suspected in many cases where there has been a reduction in water uptake or increased water demand placed on the plant. The plant responds by rolling the leaves which reduces the surface area exposed to high radiation. High temperatures, excessive pruning, cultivation, and vine moving activities may also trigger leaf rolling. High nitrogen fertility programs followed by moisture stress may also trigger this type of leaf roll. Inadequate calcium moving to leaf margins may also cause a different type of leaf cupping. This is also related to interrupted water movement.

In most cases, yields are not affected by physiological leaf rolling or cupping. However, growers may choose to select varieties that are less susceptible to this disorder.


Vegetable Crop Insects – July 1, 2011

Friday, July 1st, 2011

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist;

Continue to scout all melons for aphids, cucumber beetles, and spider mites. As a general guideline, a treatment should be considered when you find 20-30% of the plants infested with 1-2 mites per leaf. Be sure to check all labels for rates, precautions and restrictions, especially as they apply to pollinators. There have also been reports of insect feeding on drip tape resulting in a significant number of leaks in the tape. If you are experiencing problems, please be sure to contact Joanne Whalen ( so we can try to evaluate the extent of the problem.

As soon as the first flowers can be found, be sure to consider a corn borer treatment. Depending on local corn borer trap catches, sprays should be applied on a 7 to 10-day schedule once pepper fruit is ¼ – ½ inch in diameter. Be sure to check local moth catches in your area by calling the Crop Pest Hotline (in state: 1-800-345-7544; out of state: 302-831-8851) or visiting our website at ( You will also need to consider a treatment for pepper maggot. Be sure to watch carefully for beet armyworm larvae since they can quickly defoliate plants.

Continue to scout fields for Colorado potato beetle (CPB), aphids and leafhoppers. Controls will be needed for green peach aphids if you find 2 aphids per leaf during bloom and 4 aphids per leaf post bloom. This threshold increases to 10 per leaf at 2 weeks from vine death/kill. If melon aphids are found, the threshold should be reduced by half.

Snap Beans
Continue to scout for leafhopper and thrips activity in seedling stage beans. Sprays will be needed at the bud and pin stages on processing beans for corn borer control. Acephate can be used at the bud and pin stages on processing beans but remember it has a 14-day wait until harvest. Once corn earworm trap catches start to increase again, you will also need to select a product that controls corn earworm as well. Additional sprays may be needed after the pin spray on processing beans. Since trap catches can change quickly, be sure to check our website for the most recent trap catches and information on how to use this data to make a treatment decision in processing snap beans after bloom (
and Once pins are present on fresh market snap beans and corn borer trap catches are above 2 per night, a 7 to 10-day schedule should be maintained for corn borer control.

Sweet Corn
Continue to sample all fields from the whorl through pre-tassel stage for corn borers and corn earworms. We have found the first fall armyworm larvae in whorl stage sweet corn. A treatment should be considered when 12-15% of the plants are infested. Since fall armyworm feeds deep in the whorls, sprays should be directed into the whorls and multiple applications are often needed to achieve control

The first silk sprays will be needed for corn earworm as soon as ear shanks are visible. Be sure to check both black light and pheromone trap catches for silk spray schedules since the spray schedules can quickly change. Trap catches are generally updated on Tuesday and Friday mornings (
and You can also call the Crop Pest Hotline (in state: 1-800-345-7544; out of state: 302-831-8851).