Posts Tagged ‘19:17’

WCU Volume 19, Issue 17 – July 15, 2011

Friday, July 15th, 2011

PDF Version of WCU 19:17 – July 15, 2011

In this issue:

Vegetables
Vegetable Crop Insects
Stress in Vegetables
Tomato Leaf Roll Problems
Potato Disease Advisory #17 – July 15, 2011

Agronomic Crops
Agronomic Crop Insects
Grain Marketing Highlights

Announcements
Sussex Co. A Day in the Garden Open House – July 16
UD Watermelon Twilight Meeting – August 3
NE SARE Farmer Grant Workshop Series –starts August 13

Weather

 

NE SARE Farmer Grant Workshop: Learn how to get problem-solving grants that will benefit the community as a whole

Friday, July 15th, 2011

● Have you ever been frustrated by the lack of a solution to a particular problem in farming?

● Have you ever wondered about writing a grant to see if your problem-solving idea really works?

● Does the whole process of writing a grant just seem overly complicated?

● Would you like some guidance through the grant writing process?

● Do you raise animals, crops, grains, cut flowers or perhaps even bees?

This workshop is designed to guide farmers through the individual steps of writing a grant for Northeast SARE (Sustainable Agriculture, Research, and Education). The business of getting grants is competitive and learning the tools that will get you closer to receiving a grant is valuable. By attending this workshop you will learn how to answer the 7 questions required for a SARE Farmer grant.

This series of 7 workshops begins on Saturday, August 13.

All meetings will be held at the UD Paradee Center, 69 Transportation Circle, Dover, DE 19901

Registration deadline is August 5.  For more information contact Dr. Brigid McCrea at (302) 857-6424 or bmccrea@desu.edu or go to http://agdev.anr.udel.edu/weeklycropupdate/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/SAREws.pdf

Attention Sussex Co. Gardeners! A Day in the Garden Open House

Friday, July 15th, 2011

Saturday, July 16, 2011     10 a.m. – 2 p.m.
Sussex County Extension Office
16483 County Seat Hwy
Georgetown, DE

Highlights
PLANT SALE   (benefits local educational outreach programs)

CHILDREN’S ACTIVITIES – Pot a Plant, Scavenger Hunt, Learn about Insects, Enjoy Birds, Butterflies, Frogs and Goldfish.  Peter Rabbit’s Adventures in Farmer McGregor’s Vegetable Garden Puppet Show!
Show Times: 10:30 a.m., 11:30 a.m., 12:30 p.m. & 1:30 p.m.

ACCESSIBLE GARDENING – Get great ideas; try new tools.  Learn to Garden Smart, Garden Easy.

NEW TO VEGETABLE GARDENING – Save Your Harvest Demonstration—11 a.m. & 1 p.m.

PLANT PROBLEMS? – bring in samples to our plant clinic.

TOOL SHARPENING – bring yours and learn how to sharpen them properly.

PLUS… container gardening, vertical gardening, square foot gardening, raised beds, native plants, backyard habitat, lawns, soil testing, composting, annuals, perennials, trees and shrubs.

Bring Children, Grandchildren, Family & Friends.

For More Information, visit our website – http://sites.udel.edu/carvelnews/2011/07/06/master-gardener-open-house-2011/ or Tracy Wootten at 302-856-7303; wootten@udel.edu.

Don’t forget your camera!

University of Delaware Watermelon Twilight Meeting

Friday, July 15th, 2011

Wednesday, August 3, 2011     5:00-7:00 p.m.
UD Carvel Research and Education Center
16483 County Seat Highway
Georgetown, DE

The University of Delaware will be hosting a watermelon twilight meeting and tour on Wednesday, August 3. Featured will be research on pollenizers for seedless production, hollow heart causes and hollow heart reduction, enhanced fruit set, growth regulators for watermelons, bacterial inoculants, bumblebees for watermelon pollination, disease management, insect control, and herbicides for under plastic and row middles. Researchers will be on hand to discuss their work and present current results. There will be a short walking tour.

Light refreshments will be provided

Grain Marketing Highlights – July 15, 2011

Friday, July 15th, 2011

Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu

July USDA Domestic S&D Summary
Tuesday, July 12, 2011

US Supply/Demand Estimates 7/12 (million bushels)

 

Corn

Soybeans

Wheat

Crop Year 10-11 11-12 11-12 10-11 11-12 11-12 10-11 11-12 11-12
Report Date 07/12 06/09 07/12 07/12 06/09 07/12 07/12 06/09 07/12
Carryin

1,708

730

880

151

180

200

976

809

Production

12,447

13,200

13,470

3,329

3,285

3,225

2,208

2,058

2,106

Imports

30

20

20

15

15

15

100

110

100

Total Supply

14,185

13,950

14,370

3,495

3,480

3,440

3,284

2,977

3,067

 

Feed

5,000

5,000

5,050

135

220

220

Crush/mill*

1,350

1,375

1,370

1,650

1,655

1,655

930

945

945

Ethanol Prod.

5,050

5,050

5,150

Seed/other

30

30

30

125

115

115

73

75

82

Exports

1,875

1,800

1,900

1,520

1,520

1,495

1,286

1,050

1,150

Total Use

13,305

13,255

13,500

3,295

3,290

3,264

2,423

2,290

2,397

Carryout

880

695

870

200

190

175

861

687

670

Stocks/Use Rat

6.6%

5.2%

6.4%

6.1%

5.8%

5.4%

35.5%

30.0%

28.0%

Avg Price

5.25

6.50

6.00

11.35

14.00

13.00

5.70

7.70

7.30

*Excludes corn for ethanol

The report should be viewed as neutral to bullish for corn and wheat, neutral to bearish for beans.

Concerning new-crop corn production, the 270 million bushel increase in production was largely offset by a 245 million bushel increase in demand. All wheat production came in 35 million bushels above the pre-report estimate, though this was offset by a 100 million bushel increase in exports, resulting in ending stocks decreasing 17 million bushels from last month. Old-crop ending stocks of soybeans increased 20 million bushels from last month due to a decrease in exports while new-crop stocks fell less than expected to 175 million bushels.

This report will be quickly discounted due to the need to resurvey planted acreage in selected states. Additionally, outside market forces are currently influencing commodity trading more than fundamental factors. Financial problems in Europe continue to plague these markets.

The weekly crop progress report did not contain any information out of the ordinary.

July USDA World S&D Summary
Tuesday, July 12, 2011

World S&D Summary (million metric tons)

 

Corn

Soybeans

Wheat

Crop Year

10-11

11-12

11-12

10-11

11-12

11-12

10-11

11-12

11-12

Report Date

07/12

06/09

07/12

07/12

06/09

07/12

07/12

06/09

07/12

Carryin

143.63

117.44

120.88

59.35

64.53

65.88

198.29

187.12

189.97

Production

820.02

866.18

872.39

263.69

262.79

261.45

648.21

664.34

662.42

Total Supply

963.65

983.62

993.27

323.04

327.32

327.33

846.50

851.46

852.39

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Feed

495.10

514.35

517.30

117.33

121.67

122.96

Crush

223.81

232.90

232.35

Other

347.67

357.39

360.31

30.38

30.31

30.30

539.24

545.52

547.24

Total Use

842.77

871.74

877.61

254.19

263.21

262.65

656.57

667.19

670.20

 

End Carryout

120.88

111.89

115.66

65.88

61.59

61.97

189.97

184.26

182.19

Stocks/Use Rat

14.3%

12.8%

13.2%

25.9%

23.4%

23.6%

28.9%

27.6%

27.2%

World ending stocks should be viewed as bearish for corn, neutral for beans and neutral to bullish for wheat.

Time to Watch the Weather
As speculation would have it the ‘weather market’ has arrived in full force. Scattered reports are coming in concerning portions of the Corn Belt that are in trouble due to hot, dry weather. Economic concerns both at home and abroad are simultaneously adding strength to the Dow and weakness to the dollar, making for better U.S. export business. These factors all contribute to the recent run up in commodity prices. The fact that energy prices are bidding up also lends support. USDA’s weekly export sales report released this morning was viewed as neutral for soybeans; neutral to slightly bullish for corn; and neutral to slightly bullish for wheat.

Market Strategy
There are several pending questions concerning 2011 corn and soybean production. Among them, size of production? Pollination, for example, is all over the waterfront in portions of the Corn Belt. This would seem to indicate that we are not likely to see record setting production. This is important in that the size of the crop will affect available supply. We went into this growing season with no room for margin of error and as of mid-July that is still the case. A strong positive impacting these markets right now is the fact that the commercials (end users) are currently bullish. Rumors are abounding concerning the weather and the negative impact upon yield that will surely result. It is advisable to proceed with caution. Currently, Dec ‘11 corn futures are trading at $6.77; Nov ‘11 soybeans at $13.83; and July ‘11 SRW wheat at $7.02 per bushel. Incremental sales would seem advisable for those needing to catch up on making forward cash sales for their 2011 corn and soybean production.

Agronomic Crop Insects – July 15, 2011

Friday, July 15th, 2011

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Alfalfa
Continue to scout fields on a weekly basis for leafhoppers. In past years, we have also seen increases in thrips during hot, dry weather conditions. Reports from other areas of the country indicate that thrips feeding on developing leaf tissue can cause the leaves to distort as they emerge. Leaves may also be curled, with a cupped or puckered appearance. Since there are no thresholds for thrips in alfalfa and we have limited experience with this pest in Delaware, the following information from other areas of the country may be helpful when considering the need for thrips management: “(a) high populations ofbean or onion thrips may cause damage, especially in dryland conditions and (b) if a thrips treatment is contemplated, it is best to cut as soon as possible and treat the regrowth if the infestation persists. Thrips are very difficult to control in alfalfa, so excellent coverage is important and two applications may be required for satisfactory results.”

Soybeans
We continue to see a number of defoliators (grasshoppers, blister beetles, Japanese beetles, bean leaf beetles and green cloverworm, etc.) present in full season and double crop beans. As full season fields enter the bloom to pod fill stages, remember that the threshold drops to 15% defoliation.

We are starting to see an increase in stink bug populations (green and brown) in full season bean fields so be sure to watch for this insect as the earliest maturing fields begin to set pods. So far, very few brown marmorated stink bugs have been found and in most cases they have only been found on field edges near woods. Economic damage from stink bugs is most likely to occur during the pod development and pod fill stages. You will need to sample for both adults and nymphs when making a treatment decision. Available thresholds are based on beans that are in the pod development and fill stages. This year we will again use the same thresholds for stink bugs that are being used in Virginia and were developed in states to our south. As a general guideline, current thresholds are set at 1 large nymph/adult (either brown or green stink bug) per row foot if using a beat sheet, or, 2.5 per 15 sweeps in narrow-row beans, or 3.5 per 15 sweeps in wide-row beans.

Spider mites continue to be found in fields throughout the state. The rain last Friday may in some cases help beans to grow and allow treatments to be more effective. If egg populations are high at the time of application, a second application will most likely be needed. Be sure to read all labels carefully since there are restrictions on the number of applications as well as the minimum number of days needed between applications.

Potato Disease Advisory #17 – July 15, 2011

Friday, July 15th, 2011

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Location: Art and Keith Wicks Farm, Rt 9, Little Creek, Kent County.
Greenrow: May 3

Date

Late Blight

Early Blight

Spray Interval Recommendation

DSV

Total DSV

Accumulated P-days*

6/27

1

70

416

10-days
6/28

1

71

424

10-days
6/29

0

71

432

10-days
6/29-7/2

0

71

456

10-days
7/3

1

72

462

10-days
7/4

0

72

468

10-days
7/5

1

73

474

10-days
7/6

0

73

481

10-days
7/7

3

76

486

7-days
7/8

3

79

493

5-days
7/9

0

79

499

5-days
7/10

0

79

506

5-days
7/11-7/14

0

79

530

10-days

 

Continue to scout fields for symptoms of late blight. Conditions will continue to favor early blight. The recent rains and the amount of humidity we have been having have made conditions for late blight more favorable. Maintain spray programs if plants are still growing. The shortened spray interval reflects the more favorable conditions and is a very conservative recommendation but with no recent detections, 7-day intervals should be fine.

Late Blight was reported two weeks ago in DE, on the eastern shore VA, and Long Island, New York. There have been no further reports of late blight in DE or VA but late blight has been reported on the North Fork on Long Island, NY in addition to the earlier find on the South Fork.

For specific fungicide recommendations, see the 2011 Delaware Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations Book.

Tomato Leaf Roll Problems

Friday, July 15th, 2011

Jerry Brust, IPM Vegetable Specialist, University of Maryland; jbrust@umd.edu

Over the last few weeks there have been many reports about tomato leaves curling, sometimes severely, in growers’ fields. It starts with upward cup­ping at the leaf margins followed by inward rolling of the leaves (Photo 1). Lower leaves are affected first, and can recover if environmen­tal conditions and cultural factors are adjust­ed to reduce stress. Not all leaves on a plant roll, but eventually the rolling can involve most leaves on a plant and last through the season. In severe cases, whole plants can be affected. The margins of adjacent leaflets may touch or overlap (Photo 1). Rolled leaves become rough and leathery but are otherwise normal in size and appearance. There is no discoloration of leaf veins associated with this problem. The good news is that leaf roll rarely affects plant growth, fruit yield, or fruit quality.

How bad leaf roll gets appears to be very cultivar dependent. Cultivars selected for high yield tend to be the most susceptible. Indeterminate cultivars seem to be more sen­sitive to this problem than determinate cultivars. Leaf roll is often seen just after plants are heavily pruned during dry soil conditions. If the tomato plant’s top growth is more vigor­ous than root growth and we are hit with a dry hot period the foliage may transpire water faster than the root system can absorb it from the soil, and the plant will respond by rolling its leaves to reduce the transpiration surface area. Another cause of this disorder includes growing high-yielding cultivars under high nitrogen fertility programs. Oddly enough leaf roll disorder also has been found to be caused by excess soil moisture coupled with extended high temperatures.

It has been found that sugar and starch accumulate in the lower leaves causing the leaf to roll; the more they accumulate the worse they roll. Leaf roll is usually a problem we see when we have hot dry conditions in June or July, when plants are most actively growing. Because leaf roll will seldom affect yield it is a problem that not much should be done about other than making sure it is not some other more severe problem (some viruses can look similar to tomato leaf roll, but if the symptoms suddenly appear and involve many of the plants in a field and their lower leaves it is probably leaf roll). You can reduce symptoms by maintaining consistent, adequate soil moisture (~1 inch per week during the growing season, which will also help with calcium up-take reducing blossom end rot problems). Growers also should not prune heavily during hot dry conditions or over-fertilize with nitrogen.

Photo 1. Tomato plant with mild leaf roll of lower leaves

Stress in Vegetables

Friday, July 15th, 2011

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist; gcjohn@udel.edu

In troubleshooting vegetables in the summer months, we see fields where the major symptom is an overall lack of vigor and this poor vigor is due to one or more stress factors. Hot weather makes this stress more pronounced. Pests such as root and crown rot fungi, bacterial and fungal wilt organisms, and insects such as squash bugs can damage plant roots, stems, and vascular systems, limiting water uptake, and causing excess stress. However, there are many stresses that don’t involve diseases or insects. The following are some other causes of excess stress in vegetables this time of year.

Soil Compaction
Plants will have limited rooting in compacted areas and therefore cannot take up adequate water or mineral nutrients. In addition, compacted soils have reduced air exchange. Plants will often be stunted and will wilt early in the day in high temperatures. Cultivation can alleviate surface compaction but will be ineffective on deeper compaction.

High Soil Temperatures
Soils that have limited water holding capacity can have excessively high soil temperatures during long hot days in late spring and early summer. Late planted crops on black plastic mulch are very likely to be exposed to high soil temperatures and surface roots will often be damaged. Overhead irrigation over the black plastic mulch is very beneficial to reduce heat loads until plants have sufficient canopies to shade over the mulch.

Drip Tape and Drip Irrigation “Diseases”
Issues with drip irrigation can often be the cause of plant stress due to inadequate water. This includes plugged emitters; leaks due to insect or animal chewing that limit water flow further down the tape; leaky connections reducing flow; tape twisting and binding, again limiting flow past the point of the bind,; improper tape selection or improper irrigation timing leading to under application of water; limited well capacity also leading to under application of water; too wide of emitter spacing for the crop or soil; too wide of bed for a single tape (with double rows) and others drip irrigation problems. Over application of water in drip irrigation also can be an issue, especially in lower field areas and where soil types change in the field. This can lead to saturated beds limiting oxygen for roots. The keys to avoiding drip irrigation associated problems is to monitor fields closely, note any areas that look stressed, and investigate whether or not the drip irrigation is functioning properly. Soil moisture monitoring devices can aid greatly in detecting problems.

Inadequate Overhead Irrigation
Under-watering can lead to additional plant stress. Plugged nozzles are a major problem that often goes uncorrected. Excessive runoff due to compacted soils can lead to reduced water intake.

Excessive Fertilization
Salt induced stress conditions can occur when excess fertilizer, manure, or high salt compost is applied or when high salt index fertilizer is applied too close to vegetable plants.

Vegetable Crop Insects – July 15, 2011

Friday, July 15th, 2011

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Lima Beans
Be sure to watch carefully for spider mites. Economic levels continue to be detected and controls are only effective if treatments are applied before populations explode. Labeled materials include bifenthrin and dimethoate. We are starting to see an increase in stink bug and plant bug populations. As soon as pin pods are present, be sure to watch carefully for plant bug and stink bug adults and nymphs. As a general guideline, treatment should be considered if you find 15 adults and/or nymphs per 50 sweeps.

Melons
Continue to scout all melons for aphids, cucumber beetles, and spider mites. Although aphid populations still remain low in most fields, we have had a report of a localized economic infestation. At this time of year, early detection is critical since populations can quickly explode. We continue to find fields with yellow striped armyworm, cabbage loopers and cucumber beetle adults feeding on the rinds of watermelons. In addition, cucumber beetle larvae have been found feeding on the undersurface of melons. We can also continue to find high levels of beet armyworm moths in some of our pheromone traps so you will need to check carefully for this insect since populations can quickly explode. With the complex of rind feeders present, it will be important to determine which insect is causing the damage to select the best treatment option. The pyrethroids have not provided effective beet armyworm control so be sure to select a material that is labeled for this insect on melons such as Coragen, Avaunt, Intrepid, Radiant, Synapse or Vetica. Since harvest is well underway in the earliest planted fields, be sure to check all labels for days between last application and harvest.

Peppers
As soon as the first flowers can be found, be sure to consider a corn borer treatment. Depending on local corn borer trap catches, sprays should be applied on a 7 to 10-day schedule once pepper fruit is ¼ – ½ inch in diameter. Be sure to check local moth catches in your area by calling the Crop Pest Hotline (instate: 800-345-7544; out of state: 302-831-8851) or visiting our website at http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/traps/latestblt.html. You will also need to consider a treatment for pepper maggot. Be sure to watch carefully for beet armyworm larvae since they can quickly defoliate plants. In addition, be sure to use a material that provides beet armyworm control – the pyrethroids will not control this insect.

Snap Beans
As corn borer and corn earworm populations start to increase again, you will need to consider treatments for both insect pests. Sprays are needed at the bud and pin stages on processing beans for corn borer control. As earworm trap catches increase, an earworm spray may also be needed at the pin stage. You will need to check our website for the most recent trap catches to help decide on the spray interval between the pin stage and harvest for processing snap beans (http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/traps/latestblt.html and http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/thresh/snapbeanecbthresh.html). Once pins are present on fresh market snap beans, a 7 to 10-day schedule should be maintained for corn borer and corn earworm control.

Sweet Corn
Be sure to sample all fields from the whorl through pre-tassel stage for corn borers, corn earworms and fall armyworm. We are starting to see an increase in whorl infestations of fall armyworm. A treatment should be considered when 12-15% of the plants are infested. Since fall armyworm feeds deep in the whorls, sprays should be directed into the whorls and multiple applications are often needed to achieve control. The first silk sprays will be needed for corn earworm as soon as ear shanks are visible. Be sure to check both blacklight and pheromone trap catches for silk spray schedules since the spray schedules can quickly change. Trap catches are generally updated on Tuesday and Friday mornings (http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/traps/latestblt.html and http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/thresh/silkspraythresh.html). You can also call the Crop Pest Hotline (in state: 1-800-345-7544; out of state: 302-831-8851).