Posts Tagged ‘19:21’

WCU Volume 19:21 – August 12, 2011

Friday, August 12th, 2011

Volume 19, Issue 21 – August 12, 2011

PDF Version of WCU 19:21 – August 12, 2011

In this issue:

Downy Mildew Alert – August 15, 2011

Vegetables
Vegetable Crop Insects
Vegetable Disease Updates
Cover Crops for Vegetable Rotations Revisited

Fruit
Update on Brown Marmorated Stink Bug on Tree Fruit

Agronomic Crops
Agronomic Crop Insects
Corn and Soybean Disease Update
Grain Marketing Highlights

General
NRCS Announces Sign-Up for Environmental Quality Incentives Program

Announcements
LESREC Watermelon & Pumpkin Twilight – August 16
Mid-Atlantic Precision Ag Equipment Day – August 30, Denton, MD
UD Corn Hybrid Trial Tour & Twilight – September 1, Dover, DE
Notice to Hispanic and/or Women Farmers or Ranchers Compensation for Claims of Discrimination

Weather

 

UD Corn Hybrid Trial Tour & Twilight Meeting

Friday, August 12th, 2011

Thursday, September 1, 2011    4:00 – 7:30 p.m.
Dickerson Farms, 1730 Bayside Drive
Dover, DE
(From Rt.1, take the Rt. 9 exit towards Little Creek. Farm entrance is on the right after Bergold Lane.)

All farmers and Crop Advisors are invited to attend the University of Delaware corn hybrid variety trial and twilight meeting on September 1, 2011.  The corn hybrid plots will be open for viewing at this irrigated location starting at 4:00 p.m.  Extension specialists will be on hand to discuss insect pest management in corn, management of diseases commonly found in our area, and weed control issues.  Optimizing nutrient applications in corn will also be discussed.  Dinner will be provided. CCA, DE Nutrient Management, and DE Pesticide credits will be available.

Schedule:
4:00 – 5:30: Sign-in and Tour Corn Hybrid Plots
Dr. Richard Taylor, Extension Agronomist and Tecle Weldekidan, Scientist, UD

5:30 – 6:00: Dinner

6:00 – 6:20- Late Season Insect Pest Update
Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist, UD

6:20 – 6:40- Common Corn Diseases in DE
Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist, UD

6:40 – 7:00- Weed Control Issues in Corn
Dr. Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist, UD

7:00 – 7:30- Optimizing Nutrient Applications in Corn
Dr. Greg Binford, Associate Professor and Extension Specialist of Soil Fertility, UD

Registration:  Please RSVP by calling (302)-730-4000 by August 29 or email Phillip Sylvester phillip@udel.edu.

First Ever Mid-Atlantic Precision Ag Equipment Day

Friday, August 12th, 2011

Tuesday, August 30, 2011  8:00 a.m. – 5:30 p.m.
Caroline County 4-H Park
8230 Detour Road
Denton, Maryland 21629

This landmark event brings together all Mid-Atlantic land grant universities, major agricultural equipment manufacturers and retailers, and farmers to improve agricultural production efficiency and profitability

University of Maryland Extension, in cooperation with Virginia Tech, West Virginia University, Penn State, and the University of Delaware, is proud to bring you the first Mid-Atlantic Precision Ag Equipment Day. Farmers from around the region are invited to presentations led by the nation’s top experts on agricultural equipment and machinery engineering. Participants will learn about the latest technology and how to apply it in their operations. They will also have the opportunity to meet with the speakers in breakout rooms throughout the day to ask questions in an informal setting. Practical and informative advice will be given on sprayer and planter section control, variable rate seeding, economics and practical implementation of RTK and GPS, soil mapping, using technology for on-farm research and developing custom variable rate prescriptions, and much more. Equipment dealers from across the region will be on hand in the sponsor midway showing off the latest in agricultural technology and machinery, and participants will see this equipment in action in the demonstration area. Certified Crop Advisor and Nutrient Management Credits will be available.

The event is free for attendees. Please register to help us plan for the event. When you register, you will also be entered in a drawing for door prizes. For a complete schedule or to register go to http://www.enst.umd.edu/extension/Events.cfm  or call (410) 228-8800.

2011 LESREC Watermelon & Pumpkin Twilight Meeting

Friday, August 12th, 2011

Tuesday, August 16, 2011     6:30 – 7:00 p.m.
Lower Eastern Shore Research & Education Center
24664 Nanticoke Rd., Salisbury, MD 21801

It’s a free event. Tour the fields and enjoy a light dinner with extension specialists.

Please contact Jeri Cook at jcook2@umd.edu or (410) 742-1178 to register.

NRCS Announces Sign-Up for Environmental Quality Incentives Program

Friday, August 12th, 2011

Apply before October 7 for assistance in fiscal year 2012.

The USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) is offering financial and technical assistance to Delaware producers to implement conservation practices on their farming operations. Producers are encouraged to apply for the Environment Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) by October 7 for assistance in the upcoming year.

EQIP is a voluntary, financial assistance program that helps fund on-farm conservation practices. Practices include those aimed at managing nutrient run-off and/or animal waste; improving irrigation efficiency; improving the health of native plant communities; and reducing soil loss. In fiscal year 2011, NRCS awarded Delaware producers $4.9 million through 137 EQIP contracts.

Delaware farmers transitioning to organic production or already certified as an organic producer may also qualify for the organic initiative under EQIP. Organic producers can receive up to $20,000 per year or $80,000 over six years through this program.

“EQIP is adaptable to meet the various needs of our landowners and address their natural resource challenges, which may change over time,” said Russell Morgan, Delaware NRCS State Conservationist. “By implementing these extra conservation measures, farmers are helping to sustain the productive agricultural lands and natural resources that we all depend on.”

Applications for EQIP are accepted year-round as it is a continuous sign-up. Applications received before October 7 will be considered first for funding; applications received after this date will be considered for future funding periods.

EQIP provides payments for certain conservation practices and activities. Certain historically underserved producers (limited resource farmers, beginning farmers, and socially disadvantaged producers) may be eligible for larger payments.

To find out more about EQIP or other conservation related topics in Delaware, please contact Tim Garrahan, 302-678-4260 or Dastina Johnson, 302-678-4179 or visit the Delaware NRCS website at http://www.de.nrcs.usda.gov

Grain Marketing Highlights – August 12, 2011

Friday, August 12th, 2011

Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu

August USDA Supply and Demand Report Highlights
USDA’s August report came as a major shock to the commodity markets this morning. 2011 U.S. corn and soybean production estimates were cut significantly, which were somewhat offset by sizeable reductions in use for both corn and soybeans. In spite of the domestic use and export cuts, ending stocks for both U.S. corn and soybeans were reduced. Outside market forces remain a major concern for commodity prices. In the event that the commodity markets break out, rallying to the upside, opportunities will be available for advancing sales. It is important to note that world ending stocks were increased for the current marketing year for corn soybeans and all wheat. The increase in world ending stocks and the negative impact of outside market forces could lead to a short lived/term rally. In overnight e-trade, Dec ‘11 corn futures closed at $6.91; Nov ‘11 soybeans at $13.13; and July ‘12 SRW wheat at $7.82 per bushel. In today’s trade new crop corn opened up the limit with soybeans and SRW wheat trading double digit gains.

U.S. CROP PRODUCTION (Million Bushels) 2011-2012

Aug

Avg.

High

Low

July

2010-11

Corn

12,914

13,082

13,410

12,775

13,470

12,447

Soybeans

3,056

3,187

3,590

3,115

3,225

3,329

Grain Sorghum

241

291

299

283

300

345

All Wheat

2,077

2,079

2,134

2,026

2,106

2,208

All Winter

1,498

1,491

1,550

1,429

1,492

1,485

Spring

522

541

560

490

551

616

Durum

57

61

65

56

64

107

U.S. AVERAGE YIELD (Bushels Per Acre) 2011-2012

Aug

Avg

High

Low

July

2010-11

Corn

153.0

155.6

158.0

152.1

158.7

152.8

Soybeans

41.4

42.8

43.4

42.0

43.4

43.5

Grain Sorghum

54.8

64.0

65.0

63.0

65.4

71.8

U.S. ENDING STOCKS (Million Bushels) 2011-2012

Aug

Avg

High

Low

July

Corn

714

741

986

527

870

Soybeans

155

172

222

110

175

Grain Sorghum

22

24

29

20

27

Wheat

671

671

762

629

670

U.S. ENDING STOCKS (Million Bushels) 2010-2011

Aug

Avg

High

Low

July

2009-10

Corn

940

923

1,005

880

880

1,708

Soybeans

230

223

235

200

200

151

Grain Sorghum

27

28

31

25

27

41

WORLD ENDING STOCKS (Million Metric Tons)

2011-2012

2010-2011

Aug

Avg

July/ Aug

Avg

July

Wheat

188.87

182.75

182.19/191.74

189.20

190.00

Corn

114.53

114.07

115.66/122.93

113.61

120.88

Soybeans

60.95

61.82

61.97/68.42

66.46

65.88

WORLD PRODUCTION (Million Metric Tons)

2011-2012

2010-2011

Aug

July

Aug

July

Canada wheat

21.5

21.5

23.2

23.2

Australia wheat

25.0

25.0

26.0

26.0

Argentine corn

26.0

26.0

22.0

22.0

Brazil corn

57.0

55.0

55.0

55.0

Brazil soybeans

73.5

72.5

75.5

74.5

Argentine soybeans

53.0

53.0

49.0

49.5

For technical assistance on making grain marketing decisions contact Carl L. German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist.

Corn and Soybean Disease Update – August 12, 2011

Friday, August 12th, 2011

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Corn
Gray leaf spot is increasing in irrigated corn but it is too late to affect yield. This late in the season we often see an increase in gray leaf spot as well as Northern corn leaf blight.

We have seen several samples of ears with the milk line half-way up the kernels with random discolored kernels. This is Fusarium ear rot caused by Fusarium moniliforme. The fungus travels down the silks and infects the individual kernels. Often white fungal growth can be seen as well. Hybrids vary in their susceptibility and infection is favored by hot, dry weather. When severe the whole ear can be whitish. Often most of the fungus growth is limited to the tips of the ears. If grain is to be stored it is important to dry it sufficiently to prevent growth of the fungus to prohibit growth of the mycotoxin, fumonisin.

Individual random kernels and some tip infection by Fusarium moniliforme.

Soybeans
Despite the hot, dry weather downy mildew is showing up in full season irrigated soybeans now. Varieties vary in their resistance, but this fungus disease has never been yield limiting or damaging here. The disease produces numerous small yellow spots on the upper leaf surface and a tuft of grayish fungal growth on the corresponding lower leaf surface.

Downy mildew on the upper leaf surface of soybean caused by Peronospora manshurica.

Grayish tufts of the downy mildew fungus on the lower leaf surface.

Agronomic Crop Insects – August 21, 2011

Friday, August 12th, 2011

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Alfalfa and Grass Hay Crops
Be sure to watch for corn earworm, fall armyworm, beet armyworms and webworms — as well as any other defoliators. In addition to checking labels for rates, be sure to check for comments on control under high populations and size of larvae; days to harvest as well as forage/silage restrictions, as well as other use restrictions. Continue to watch grass hay fields for armyworms – especially on re-growth after cutting. Larvae must be small at the time of treatment to achieve effective control.

Soybeans
We are starting to get reports from consultants of economic levels of corn earworms in Kent and Sussex counties in Delaware and on the lower eastern shore of Maryland. Trap catches remain high throughout the state and moths can be found laying eggs in fields. In general, threshold levels are being found in drought stressed full season and double crop fields at this time. However, this could change quickly so all fields will need to be scouted since it appears we are the beginning of the egg hatch period. Since population levels vary from field to field, the only way to know if you have an economic level will be to scout all fields. Remember, corn earworms can feed on the foliage and blossoms as well as the pods. Although there is no threshold for corn earworm feeding on flowers or leaves, data from North Carolina has indicated that feeding on flowers can result in reduced yields by delaying pod set. When looking at foliage feeding by corn earworm, you will need to use defoliation as well as the presence of worms to make a decision (again – there is no worm threshold available for leaf and/or blossom feeding). Once pods are present, the best approach to making a decision on what threshold to use for corn earworm is to access the Corn Earworm Calculator developed at Virginia Tech (http://www.ipm.vt.edu/cew/) which estimates a threshold based on the actual treatment cost and bushel value you enter.

Update on Brown Marmorated Stink Bug on Tree Fruit – August 12, 2011

Friday, August 12th, 2011

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Please refer to the most recent update from Tracy Leskey, USDA-ARS regarding BMSB activity in tree fruit at: http://agdev.anr.udel.edu/weeklycropupdate/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/BMSB-Tree-Fruit-Update-8-8-11-2.pdf.

The photo above, courtesy of Gordon Johnson, is of BMSB damage to peach fruit.

Cover Crops for Vegetable Rotations Revisited

Friday, August 12th, 2011

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist; gcjohn@udel.edu

August is here and it is time to consider late summer and fall cover crop options for vegetable rotations. Cover crop planting windows vary with crop and timely planting is essential to achieve the desired results. Here are some reasons to consider using cover crops in vegetable rotations:

Return organic matter to the soil. Vegetable rotations are tillage intensive and organic matter is oxidized at a high rate. Cover crops help to maintain organic matter levels in the soil, a critical component of soil health and productivity.

Provide winter cover. By having a crop (including roots) growing on a field in the winter you recycle plant nutrients (especially nitrogen), reduce leaching losses of nitrogen, reduce erosion by wind and water, and reduce surface compaction and the effects of heavy rainfall on bare soils. Cover crops also compete with winter annual weeds and can help reduce weed pressure in the spring.

Reduce certain diseases and other pests. Cover crops help to maintain soil organic matter. Residue from cover crops can help increase the diversity of soil organisms and reduce soil borne disease pressure. Some cover crops may also help to suppress certain soil borne pests, such as nematodes, by releasing compounds that affect these pests upon decomposition.

Provide nitrogen for the following crop. Leguminous cover crops, such as hairy vetch or crimson clover, can provide significant amounts of nitrogen, especially for late spring planted vegetables.

Improve soil physical properties. Cover crops help to maintain or improve soil physical properties and reduce compaction. Roots of cover crops and incorporated cover crop residue will help improve drainage, water holding capacity, aeration, and tilth.

There are many cover crop options for late summer or fall planting, including:

Small Grains
Rye is often used as a winter cover as it is very cold hardy and deep rooted. It has the added advantage of being tall and strips can be left the following spring to provide windbreaks in crops such as watermelons. Rye makes very good surface mulch for roll-kill or plant through no-till systems for crops such as pumpkins. It also can be planted later (up to early November) and still provide adequate winter cover. Wheat, barley, and triticale are also planted as winter cover crops by vegetable producers.

Spring oats may also be used as a cover crop and can produce significant growth if planted in late August or early September. It has the advantage of winter killing in most years, thus making it easier to manage for early spring crops such as peas or cabbage. All the small grain cover crops will make more cover with some nitrogen application or the use of manure.

To get full advantage of small grain cover crops, use full seeding rates and plant early enough to get some fall tillering. Drilling is preferred to broadcast or aerial seeding.

Ryegrasses
Both perennial and annual ryegrasses also make good winter cover crops. They are quick growing in the fall and can be planted from late August through October. If allowed to grow in the spring, ryegrasses can add significant organic matter to the soil when turned under, but avoid letting them go to seed.

Winter Annual Legumes
Hairy vetch, crimson clover, field peas, subterranean clover, and other clovers are excellent cover crops and can provide significant nitrogen for vegetable crops that follow. Hairy vetch works very well in no-till vegetable systems where it is allowed to go up to flowering and then is killed by herbicides or with a roller-crimper. It is a common system for planting pumpkins in the region but also works well for late plantings of other vine crops, tomatoes and peppers. Hairy vetch, crimson clover and subterranean clover can provide from 80 to well over 100 pounds of nitrogen equivalent. Remember to inoculate the seeds of these crops with the proper Rhizobial inoculants for that particular legume. All of these legume species should be planted as early as possible – from the last week in August through the end of September to get adequate fall growth. These crops need to be established at least 4 weeks before a killing frost.

Brassica Species
There has been an increase in interest in the use of certain Brassica species as cover crops for vegetable rotations.

Rapeseed has been used as a winter cover and has shown some promise in reducing levels of certain nematode in the soil. To take advantage of the biofumigation properties of rapeseed you plant the crop in late summer, allow the plant to develop until early next spring and then till it under before it goes to seed. It is the leaves that break down to release the fumigant-like chemical. Mow rapeseed using a flail mower and plow down the residue immediately. Never mow down more area than can be plowed under within two hours. Note: Mowing injures the plants and initiates a process releasing nematicidal chemicals into the soil. Failure to incorporate mowed plant material into the soil quickly, allows much of these available toxicants to escape by volatilization.

Turnips and mustards can be used for fall cover but not all varieties and species will winter over into the spring. Several mustard species have biofumigation potential and a succession rotation of an August planting of biofumigant mustards that are tilled under in October followed by small grain can significantly reduce diseases for spring planted vegetables that follow.

More recent research in the region has been with forage radish. It produces a giant tap root that acts like a bio-drill, opening up channels in the soil and reducing compaction. When planted in late summer, it will produce a large amount of growth and will smother any winter annual weeds. It will then winter kill leaving a very mellow, weed-free seedbed. It is an ideal cover crop for systems with early spring planted vegetables such as peas.

Oilseed radish is similar to forage radish but has a less significant root. It also winter kills.

Brassicas must be planted early – mid-August through mid-September – for best effect.

Mixtures
Mixtures of rye with winter legume cover crops (such as hairy vetch) have been successful and offer the advantage, in no-till systems, of having a more rapidly decomposing material with the longer residual rye as a mulch.