Posts Tagged ‘19:8’

Grain Marketing Highlights – May 13, 2011

Thursday, May 12th, 2011

Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu

USDA’s May 2011 Supply and Demand Report Highlights

2010-11 U.S. ENDING STOCKS (Billion Bushels)

  May Average High Low April 2009-10
Corn 0.730 0.665 0.700 0.565 0.675 1.708
Soybeans 0.170 0.153 0.180 0.140 0.140 0.151
Grain Sorghum 0.032 0.031 0.034 0.028 0.032 0.041
Wheat 0.839 0.844 0.868 0.825 0.839 0.976

 

2011-12 U.S. ENDING STOCKS (Billion Bushels)

May Average High Low
Corn 0.900 0.811 1.025 0.574
Soybeans 0.160 0.176 0.250 0.122
Grain Sorghum 0.037 0.038 0.045 0.029
Wheat 0.702 0.674 0.800 0.432

 

2011-12 WINTER WHEAT PRODUCTION (Billion Bushels)

2011 May Average High Low 2010-11
All Wheat 2.043 2.042 2.107 1.988 2.208
All Winter Wheat 1.424 1.389 1.460 1.300 1.485
HRW 0.762 0.767 0.960 0.650 1.018
SRW 0.427 0.392 0.450 0.240 0.238
White 0.235 0.231 0.260 0.219 0.229

 

WORLD ENDING STOCKS (Million metric tons)

2011-12 2010-11
May May April
Wheat 181.26 182.2 182.83
Corn 129.14 122.19 122.43
Soybeans 61.85 63.81 60.94

 

WORLD PRODUCTION (Million Metric Tons)

2011-12 2010-11
May May April
FSU-12 100.6 80.97 81.0
EU-27 138.62 135.76 136.1
Brazil corn 55.0 55.0 55.0
Argentina corn 26.0 22.0 22.0
Brazil soybeans 72.5 73.0 72.0
Argentine soybeans 53.0 49.5 49.5
     

2010-2011 U.S. ENDING STOCKS
USDA increased U.S. corn ending stocks for the ‘10/‘11 marketing year to 730 million bushels, compared to 675 million bushels last month. In the initial estimates for the ‘11/‘12 marketing year, USDA increased stocks for corn while decreasing stocks for wheat and soybeans. This takes the U.S. ending stocks-to-use ratio for corn to 5.4%.

Soybean ending stocks were increased to 170 million bushels, as compared to 140 million bushels in April, due to a 10 million bushel decrease in exports and an 11 million bushel reduction in residual use. The stocks-to-use ratio is 5.1%.

Domestic wheat ending stocks remained unchanged at 839 million bushels, with the ending stocks-to-use ratio at 34.2%.

2011-2012 U.S. ENDING STOCKS
USDA’s May supply and demand projections for the ‘11/‘12 marketing year should be considered tentative at best. U.S. corn ending stocks are projected to increase to 900 million bushels, using the March Planting Intentions of 92.2 million acres and a projected yield of 158.7 bushels per acre. Total use was decreased from the current year’s estimate of 13.450 billion bushels to 13.355 for the new crop, placing ending stocks-to-use at 6.7%.

Soybean ending stocks are projected to drop to 160 million bushels, assuming planted acreage at 76.6 million acres and a projected yield of 43.4 bushels per acre equates to a production estimate of 3.285 billion bushels. Total demand estimated at 3.31 billion bushels, places the ending stocks-to-use ratio at just 4.8%.

All wheat ending stocks for the ‘11/‘12 marketing year are projected at 702 million bushels.

2010-2011 WORLD ENDING STOCKS
World ending stocks are projected to increase for ‘10/‘11 corn and soybeans, while declining slightly for wheat. This places the world corn stocks-to-use ratio at 15% and the soybean ratio at 23.5%.

Market Strategy
USDA’s May report is viewed as bearish for corn, neutral to slightly bearish for soybeans, and neutral to slightly bullish for wheat. Commodity trading attention will now turn to U.S. planting progress for the 2011 row crop season. Currently, Dec ‘11 corn futures are trading at $6.30 (down 22); Nov ‘11 soybeans at $13.13 (down 9); and July ‘11 SRW wheat at $7.83 (down 15).

For technical assistance on making grain marketing decisions contact Carl L. German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist.

 

Agronomic Crop Disease Update – May 13, 2011

Thursday, May 12th, 2011

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Barley
Powdery mildew on ‘Thoroughbred’ is the most common disease at the present time. Fields with the top two leaves with mildew will have some yield reduction. After looking at the variety trials in Sussex County on Tuesday I could also find small amounts of leaf rust, barley scald and the spot form of net blotch. None of these should impact yield.

Wheat
Wheat is looking very good at the present time. There is very little disease present. A few unsprayed varieties have some powdery mildew that is confined to the lower leaves and leaf sheaths. A small amount of leaf rust was also spotted on one unsprayed variety on the lower leaves. Most of the wheat that I saw has flowered and with the dry weather in most of the southern parts of the state, it looks like head scab should not be a problem. In the northern areas of the state if we get showers this weekend we may have some opportunity for infection if wheat is flowering.

Barley scald

Soybeans and Soybean Cyst Nematode
It is still not too late to check for soybean cyst nematode especially if susceptible soybeans are going to be planted. Soil test bags with the submission form can be purchased at the Extension offices. If you need results quickly, test results can be sent via FAX or email if you provide the number or email address on the Nematode Assay Information Sheet. This information sheet can be found on the web at the Plant Clinic Website http://ag.udel.edu/extension/pdc/index.htm .

 

Agronomic Crop Insects – May 13, 2011

Thursday, May 12th, 2011

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Field Corn
Be sure to continue sampling all fields for cutworms and slugs. Although we no longer have the resources for a black cutworm trapping network, there are a few traps out at the research station and trap catches have been very consistent in recent weeks. Information from the Midwest indicates that there trap catches have been higher than normal this year so be sure to scout fields even if a preventative insecticide or a Bt-variety was used for cutworm control. For cutworms, fields should be sampled through the 5-leaf stage for damage. We are finding leaf feeding as well as cut plants caused by both cutworms and slugs in no-till corn – sometimes in the same field. If slugs are damaging plants, you will be able to see “slime trails” on the leaves. As a general guideline for cutworms, a treatment should be considered in 1-2 leaf stage corn if you find 3 percent cut plants or 10% leaf feeding. If cutworms are feeding below the soil surface, it will be important to treat as late in the day as possible, direct sprays to the base of the plants and use at least 30 gallons of water per acre.

In no-till field in Kent and New Castle counties, we are starting to see any increase in slug damage. Newly hatched juvenile slugs can be found under residue in no-till fields. The use of Deadline M-Ps (or other available metaldehyde baits) should be considered if the weather remains cool and damage is increasing. There is also a 2ee recommendation for Lannate LV for slug management that was issued for corn last season (http://www.cdms.net/LDat/ld183004.pdf).

You should also sample no-till fields for true armyworms, especially where a grass-cover or volunteer small grains were burned down at planting. As a general guideline, a treatment may be needed for armyworms if 25% of the plants are infested plants with larvae less than one-inch long.

We are also seeing a few fields with bird damage that is sometimes confused with cutworm damage. You can distinguish bird damage from cutworm damage by the pattern in the field. Generally longer strips of damaged plants, plants pulled out of the ground, and/or plants cut high that are compressed at the base of the stems, all indicate bird damage. Although birds can cut plants off at the soil surface, they tend to pull plants out of the ground. In addition, if you look closely you will see “bird prints” near the missing plants or holes where birds have pulled plants out of the ground.

Small Grains
Continue to scout fields for cereal leaf beetles, armyworms and sawflies as well as aphids feeding in the heads of small grains. In unsprayed fields that have a history of cereal leaf beetle, we have observed a significant increase in activity this week. Cereal leaf beetle can cause the greatest economic loss from flowering through the soft dough stage. Once wheat reaches the hard dough stage, cereal leaf beetle feeding damage generally has little effect on yield. It is important that you scout fields on a weekly basis until harvest for armyworm and sawfly larvae. We continue to find larvae in fields that have not been sprayed. Although sawflies and armyworm can attack and cause economic losses in both wheat and barley, in outbreak years the damage often occurs quicker in barley. Since populations of all of these insects vary from field to field, fields should be scouted to determine if economic levels are present. As a general guideline, if multiple insects are present, the threshold for each insect should be reduced by 1/3 to ½. 

 

Nematode Pest Recently Found in New York Garlic Fields May Also Affect Mid-Atlantic Growers

Thursday, May 12th, 2011

Jerry Brust, IPM Vegetable Specialist, University of Maryland; jbrust@umd.edu

There is a new ‘old’ pest infecting garlic and onions in New York and other New England states that has been found as far south as Pennsylvania. It is the garlic bloat nematode. The garlic bloat nematode Ditylenchus dipsaci is capable of severely damaging a field of garlic very quickly. It probably came from Canada in garlic that was imported for food, but was planted as seed garlic. The problem then spread through distributors because there is no certification program for seed garlic and it is now widespread throughout New York. Symptoms of bloat nematode in garlic plants include: bloated, twisted, swollen leaves, distorted and cracked bulbs with dark rings (fig.1). Infested tissues become spongy, distorted and predisposes the plant to other problems like fusarium or white rot (fig. 2). Garlic bloat nematodes can overwinter in soil or crop debris and can move to the inflorescence and remain in seeds for long periods of time in some plant species, i.e., beans, clover, and alfalfa, which act as major sources of nematode dispersal. The nematodes can be spread around fields by equipment or on clothing and shoes. If a grower has purchased or brought in new planting material over the last few years, especially if it came from Ontario or New York, you may have this pest. If you have not made any new introductions in a while you are probably safe. If you have garlic bulbs that look something like figure 1 or 2 you should send a sample to a nematode laboratory for testing.

To prevent build-up of the nematode populations in a field, rotate away from any Allium crops (garlic, onions, and leeks) and control nightshades for at least 4 years. Another method to reduce levels of bloat nematodes in the soil is to keep the fields where garlic was grown moist, because bloat nematodes cannot survive for long periods in moist soils. They can persist for several years though, in dry soil and on dry plant residue. Bloat nematodes can actually survive better in dried crop debris than in soil.

Growers can use soil fumigants to reduce or eliminate the nematodes from infested areas of the field. Growers can also use bio-fumigant cover crops that can be planted after harvesting garlic. Mustard, sorghum-sudangrass have been shown to reduce nematode populations due to the bio-fumigant constituents they produce. Be sure to clean equipment and storage areas with meticulous sanitation techniques.

Figure 1. The lack of roots on one side of plate and bulb deformation can be indicators of bloat nematode infection.

Figure 2. Non-infested garlic bulbs (left) and infested garlic bulbs (right) with bloat nematode

 

Controlling Tomato Bacterial Spot and Speck

Thursday, May 12th, 2011

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

Tomato transplants with suspected symptoms can be treated with streptomycin (Agri-Mycin 17, Agri-Strep, 25) at 1 lb/100 gallons, or 1.25 teaspoon per gallon every 4 to 5 days prior to transplanting. Additionally, Kocide 3000 (copper hydroxide, FRAC code M1) has a greenhouse label for speck and spot control in the greenhouse. Apply ½ to 1.5 TBSP per 1000 sq ft. every 5 to 10 days. Remember, phytoxicity is an important issue when applying copper in enclosed structures, see label for cautions, restrictions and liabilities. After transplanting, apply Actigard at 0.33 oz 50WG/A (see label for use), or fixed copper (M1) at 1 lb a.i./A plus a mancozeb (Dithane, Manzate, Penncozeb, M3) at 1.5 lb 75DF or OLF, or ManKocide (M1 + M3) at 2.5 to 5.0 lb 61WP/A on a 7 day schedule.

 

Grafted Vegetables

Thursday, May 12th, 2011

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist; gcjohn@udel.edu

Using grafted vegetables for field production is relatively new practice in the United States. However, it is a common practice in Asian countries as well as other areas of the world.

Grafting involves selecting a rootstock that will confer some desired trait, usually resistance to a soil-borne disease. A scion plant is selected, normally the crop and variety with the horticultural traits desired. The scion is grafted onto the rootstock. For example, with tomatoes, a seedling is severed just above the cotyledon. The above-ground portion (scion) of a desired variety for harvest is secured to the root system (rootstock) of the disease-resistant seedling. Once the grafted transplants heal, they can be planted in the field for normal production.

Vegetables that have been successfully grafted include tomatoes, peppers, and eggplants and watermelons, cantaloupes, cucumbers, and other cucurbits.

Grafting can be effective as a non-chemical control method for many soilborne diseases such as Verticillium wilt and Fusarium wilt in tomatoes, Fusarium wilt in watermelons, and root knot nematodes in tomatoes and cucurbits.

Grafting onto vigorous rootstocks can also allow plants to be more stress tolerant because the rootstock has a greater rooting area. This will allow for better water stress and heat tolerance.

Grafting can also improve overall productivity of crops when no disease or stress is present. Again, the vigorous root systems can improve overall nutrient and water uptake and increase fruit yields. In watermelons, rootstocks have been shown to improve fruit quality and holding ability in the field.

Much research is underway on grafted vegetables throughout the region and several growers have started to use grafted plants for production.

 

Vegetable Crop Insects – May 13, 2011

Thursday, May 12th, 2011

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Leafminers in Vegetable Crops
Each spring, we receive reports of leaf miners attacking spring planted vegetable crops. There are a number of potential species that attack vegetables including the vegetable leafminer, serpentine leaf miner, spinach leafminer and beet leafminer. Leaf miners can be difficult to control and we have limited experience with control strategies in our area. The following links provide information on some of the potentially important species:
http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/veg/leaf/vegetable_leafminer.htm

http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/veg/leaf/a_serpentine_leafminer.htm

http://www.umassvegetable.org/soil_crop_pest_mgt/insect_mgt/beet_leafminer.html

Cabbage
Continue to scout for diamondback and imported cabbageworm larvae. Economic levels of diamondback larvae can be found. A treatment should be applied when 5% of the plants are infested and before larvae move to the hearts of the plants.

Melons
Continue to scout all melons for aphids, cucumber beetles, and spider mites. Economic levels of aphids can be found in some fields but beneficial insects (lady beetles and parasitized aphids) can also be found and in many cases they are helping to manage populations. As a general guideline, a treatment should be applied for aphids when 20 percent of the plants are infested, with 5 aphids per leaf and before significant leaf curling occurs. Low levels of spider mites are also being found in a few fields.

Peppers
As soon as plants are set in the field, begin sampling for thrips and corn borers. On young plants, corn borer larvae can bore into the stems and petioles. In areas where peppers are isolated or corn is growing slowly, moths are often attracted to young pepper plants. As a general guideline, treatment may be needed if there is no corn in the area or you are using rye strips as windbreaks. You should also look for egg masses. At this time of year, thrips can damage peppers by vectoring tomato spotted wilt virus and by causing direct plant damage. Although there are no available thresholds, a treatment may be needed if you see populations increasing.

Potatoes
Continue to sample for Colorado potato beetle adults and egg laying. A treatment should be considered for adults when you find 25 beetles per 50 plants and defoliation has reached the 10% level. Once larvae are detected, the threshold is 4 small larvae per plant or 1.5 large larvae per plant. Corn borer moths are being found in BLTs throughout the state; however, flights are still low. A corn borer spray may be needed 3-5 days after an increase in trap catches or when we reach 700-degree days (base 50).

Snap Beans
All fields in the seedling stage should be scouted for leafhopper and thrips activity. The thrips threshold is 5-6 per leaflet and the leafhopper threshold is 5 per sweep. If both insects are present, the threshold for each should be reduced by 1/3. Be sure to also watch for bean leaf beetle feeding. Damage appears as circular holes in leaves and we have seen significant damage in recent years on the earliest planted fields. As a general guideline, a treatment should be considered if you defoliation exceeds 20% prebloom.

Sweet Corn
Continue to sample for cutworms and flea beetles. As a general guideline, treatments should be applied if you find 3% cut plants or 10% leaf feeding. In order to get an accurate estimate of flea beetle populations, fields should be scouted mid-day when beetles are active. A treatment will be needed if 5% of the plants are infested with beetles. Be sure to also watch for corn borer in the whorls of the earliest planted fields. A treatment should be applied if 15% of the plants are infested.

 

Annie’s Project Reunion: Lunch & Learn

Friday, April 29th, 2011

Friday, May 20, 2011     11:00 a.m. – 3:00 p.m.
Todd Performing Arts Center
Chesapeake College, Route 50 & Route 213
Wye Mills, Maryland

It has been four years since Annie’s Project began in Maryland.  Since then, over 250 women in Maryland and Delaware have completed the course.  Annie’s Project focuses on the many aspects of farm management and is designed to empower women in overall farm decision making and to build local networks throughout the state. The target audience is farmwomen with a passion for business, agriculture and involvement in the farm operation.

The program will include a luncheon and numerous breakout sessions covering farm management topics as well as a chance to meet farmwomen from Maryland and Delaware and to catch up with Annie’s Project classmates. The Keynote speaker will be Annie’s Project Founder, Ruth Hambleton.

Cost: $25 (includes the meal and materials)

Register online at www.anniesproject.umd.edu or by mailing the registration form http://agdev.anr.udel.edu/weeklycropupdate/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/AnniesProject.pdf

Please feel free to contact Shannon Dill sdill@umd.edu, (410) 822-1244, Jenny Rhodes jrhodes@umd.edu, (410) 758-0166 or Tracy Wootten, wootten@udel.edu, (302) 856-7303 if you have any questions.

We hope you will join us for a great day!