Posts Tagged ‘20:13’

WCU Volume 20, Issue 13 – June 15, 2012

Friday, June 15th, 2012

PDF Version of WCU 20:13 – June 15, 2012

In this issue:

Vegetable Crops
Vegetable Crop Insects
Cucurbit Downy Mildew Alert!
Poor Vigor in Later Plantings of Sweet Corn
Potato Disease Advisory #12 – June 15, 2012

Agronomic Crops
Agronomic Crop Insects
Control of Volunteer Corn in Soybeans
Glyphosate Tankmixed with Reflex
Postemergence Control of Glyphosate-Resistant Horseweed
Double-Cropped Soybean Burndown Considerations
Dayflower in Soybeans
Grain Marketing Highlights

2012 Weed Science Field Day


2012 Weed Science Field Day

Friday, June 15th, 2012

Wednesday, June 27, 2012     8:15 a.m.
University of Delaware
Carvel Research and Education Center
16483 County Seat Highway
Georgetown, DE

The 2012 Weed Science Field Day is approaching.  The day will begin with registration beginning at 8:15 at the Grove near the farm buildings and new office building on the north side of the road. We will start to view the plots at 8:45 am. Coffee, juices, and donuts will be provided. We will also provide sandwiches for lunch.

Pesticide credits and Certified Crop Advisor credits will also be available.

Grain Marketing Highlights – June 15, 2012

Friday, June 15th, 2012

Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist;

USDA’s June Supply/Demand Report Takes Backseat to Weather Concerns
On Tuesday the release of USDA’s June supply and demand report was considered to be a non-event and somewhat price negative. In day trade on Wednesday underlying support was recognized in tight old crop corn supply with the July futures contract rallying 8 cents per bushel. In overnight e-trade corn, soybean, and SRW wheat futures prices rallied across the board. The reason for the current rally, which began on Wednesday night, is said to be weather related. According to DTN, the Palmer Drought Index for the five key Corn Belt states (IA, IL, IN, NE, and MN) at the end of May reflected mild drought conditions in portions of all five states. This is not to say that yields at or near trend line are not achievable. However, it does suggest that timely rains will be needed for the rest of June and July to be able to achieve yields that are at or near trend. A full blown weather market could develop in the event that the drought worsens in the heart of the Corn Belt.

U.S. Supply/Demand Estimates Summary, released 6/12, Million Bushels

Corn Soybeans Wheat
Crop Year 11-12 12-13 12-13 11-12 12-13 12-13 11-12 12-13 12-13
Report Date 06/12 05/10 06/12 06/12 05/10 06/12 06/12 05/10 06/12
Carryin 1,128 851 851 215 210 175 862 768 728
Production 12,358 14,790 14,790 3,056 3,205 3,205 1,999 2,245 2,234
Imports 20 15 15 15 15 15 120 120 120
Tot Supply 13,506 15,656 15,656 3,286 3,430 3,395 2,982 3,133 3,082
Feed 4,550 5,450 5,450 180 230 220
Crush/Mill* 1,375 1,395 1,395 1,660 1,655 1,645 940 945 945
Ethanol Prod 5,050 5,000 5,000
Seed/Other 30 30 30 116 125 125 79 73 73
Exports 1,650 1,900 1,900 1,335 1,505 1,485 1,055 1,150 1,150
Total Use 12,655 13,775 13,775 3,111 3,285 3,255 2,254 2,398 2,388
Carryout 851 1,881 1,881 175 145 140 728 735 694
Stocks/Use Rate 6.70% 13.70% 13.70% 5.60% 4.40% 4.30% 32.30% 30.70% 29.10%
Avg Price $6.10 $4.60 $4.60 $12.30 $13.00 $13.00 $7.25 $6.10 $6.20

*Excludes corn for ethanol


World S& D Summary, Million Metric Tons

Corn Soybeans Wheat
Crop Year 11-12 12-13 12-13 11-12 12-13 12-13 11-12 12-13 12-13
Report Date 06/12 05/10 06/12 06/12 05/10 06/12 06/12 05/10 06/12
Carryin 124.32 127.56 129.19 70.1 53.24 53.36 197.23 197.03 195.56
Production 872.98 945.78 949.93 236.38 271.42 271.03 694.17 677.56 672.06
Total Supply 997.3 1,073.30 1,079.12 306.48 324.66 324.39 891.4 874.59 867.62
Feed 509.08 549.54 553.31 148.29 133.7 131.67
Crush 223.41 234.22 234.05
Other 359.03 371.47 370.08 30.01 30.92 30.9 547.55 552.77 550.2
Total Use 868.11 921.01 923.39 253.42 265.14 264.95 695.84 686.47 681.87
End Carryout 129.19 152.34 155.74 53.36 58.07 58.54 195.56 188.13 185.76
Stocks/Use Rat 14.9% 16.5% 16.9% 21.1% 21.9% 22.1% 28.1% 27.4% 27.2%

USDA Export Sales Report (released 06/14) 

Pre-report estimates for weekly corn export sales ranged from 13.8 to 29.5 million bushels. For the week ending June 7 total export sales of 6.7 million bushels with 3.6 million bushels, a marketing year low, scheduled for ‘11/‘12. This was below the 10.4 million bushels needed this week to stay on pace with USDA’S export projection of 1.65 billion bushels. Weekly shipments of 17 million bushels were below the 33.8 million bushels needed this week. This report is viewed as bearish.

Pre-report estimates for weekly export sales of soybeans ranged from 16.5 to 27.6 million bushels. Total weekly export sales were reported at 36.9 million bushels with 15.6 million bushels scheduled for ‘11/‘12. Year to date soybean export sales now total 1.352 billion bushels which is above USDA’s projection of 1.335 billion bushels. Shipments of 13.8 million bushels were below the 14.7 million bushels needed this week. This report is viewed as bullish.

Pre-report estimates for wheat ranged from 5.5 to 12.9 million bushels. Total export sales for the week were reported at 15.9 million bushels. This was below the 22.5 million bushels needed to stay on pace with USDA’s 1.15 billion bushel export demand projection. Shipments of 24.5 million bushels were above the 22.5 million bushels needed this week. This report is viewed as neutral.

Market Strategy
Non-commercial (speculative) buying interest needs to return to the commodity markets before a significant rally can be sustained. We can also expect outside market forces to continue having an impact. The Dow’s reaction to today’s jobs report which placed first time unemployment filings above pre-report expectations is cause for concern. The general slowing of the U.S. and world economies could prove to be limiting to the current rally. A weaker dollar should provide some support. Weekly crop conditions were reported to have dropped from the previous week for both U.S. corn and soybeans. Currently, Dec ‘12 corn futures are trading at $5.18; Nov ‘12 soybeans at $13.14; and July SRW wheat at $6.27 per bushel. Commodity traders will be trading the ever changing weather forecasts over the next two weeks while awaiting the June 30 Planted Acreage report.

For technical assistance on making grain marketing decisions contact Carl L. German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist.

Dayflower in Soybeans

Friday, June 15th, 2012

Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist;

Last fall there was a sample of spreading dayflower brought into the office ( The field was treated once or twice with glyphosate and the plants were not controlled. The grower was concerned about resistance. As it turns out, dayflower is one of those species that glyphosate will not control. FirstRate is the best option for dayflower control in soybeans.

Double-Cropped Soybean Burndown Considerations

Friday, June 15th, 2012

Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist;

As we move into small grain harvest and considering weed control prior to planting soybeans, we have limited options. And we need to view the options as the best of a difficult situation and be realistic on what we can expect for control. Some things we need to consider are:

Weeds present at time of planting. Horseweed is the one of biggest concern, but horsenettle, ragweed, lambsquarters, grasses, etc are also present. Which of the weeds present can also be controlled after the soybeans have emerged? Are Liberty Link soybeans used, because glyphosate could be used prior to planting and then Liberty (or Ignite) used postemergence. Need to decide what problem is most critical and develop a program to target that species.

What herbicides options are available: product availability, crop rotation constraints, or environmental/soil issues. Liberty/Ignite might be the best product for some of these fields, but it is in very short supply and may not be available. Kixor products may be an option for some fields with medium-texture soils. Always consider what will be planted in the field next season and be sure there is adequate time for the intended crop rotation (it maybe only 9 months until you plant the 2013 crop!)

When glyphosate-resistant horseweed is present and it is the species you are targeting for control, you will need to rely on a herbicide other than glyphosate to control them. No product will consistently control horseweed this late in the season; and we are compounding the problems with cutting the plants off with the combine. If Liberty (or Ignite) is not available and your soil texture prevents use of Kixor, one option to consider is Gramoxone in combination with Canopy, along with crop oil concentrate and nitrogen fertilizer. Canopy is the product I would suggest because it contains metribuzin and chlorimuron. Metribuzin may improve the effectiveness of the Gramoxone. The chlorimuron at the rates used prior to planting, will have some activity on the horseweed as well. The use of crop oil and nitrogen sometimes improve Gramoxone activity, but will also maximize the effectiveness of the chlorimuron. This program is not ideal, but in my experiences it provides the best level of control under many situations. Perennial species (horsenettle or yellow nutsedge) will probably regrow and they will need to be controlled with a later glyphosate application.

If horseweed is not present in the fields then often glyphosate plus a residual herbicide may be the best option for it will control summer annual broadleaves and grasses, as well as start to “work on” the perennials. But since most plants have been damaged during small grain harvest, glyphosate activity may be reduced. But glyphosate will be used again after the soybeans have emerged and should improve overall control.

Glyphosate Tankmixed with Reflex

Friday, June 15th, 2012

Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist;

There are many situations where both fomesafen (active ingredient in Reflex) and glyphosate will complement each other for weed control. Syngenta has a premix of fomesafen plus glyphosate called Flexstar GT. Also, Reflex and glyphosate can be tankmixed, but there have been some situations of these two products not mixing well. The following is an article from Ken Smith from University of Arkansas entitled “Problem Solving Incompatible Tankmixes of Glyphosate and Reflex®”

“Some growers have experienced cottage cheese spray mixtures when Reflex® and glyphosate were tankmixed in an effort to burn down existing weeds while applying Reflex® prior to cotton or soybean planting.

“It seems that the potassium salts of glyphosate (WeatherMax, Touchdown, PowerMax etc.) are not very compatible with Reflex® . . . . Many of the generic glyphosate formulations are isopropyl or diammonium salts (not potassium salts) and will mix fine. A quick check of the label will give the salt used in the formulation. 

“If a mistake is made and Reflex® and the potassium salt of glyphosate is mixed and found to be incompatible, it can likely be brought back into solution by adding household ammonia. Start with 1% ammonia and begin agitation. More ammonia may be added if needed.”

Control of Volunteer Corn in Soybeans

Friday, June 15th, 2012

Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist;

I have looked at some soybean fields with heavy volunteer corn pressure. The corn is Roundup Ready, so none of the glyphosate formulations will control it. The postemergence grass herbicides (Select Max, clethodim, Assure II/Targa, Fusilade, or Poast) will control emerged corn. In a trial at Purdue University, control was slightly better when these products were applied to 10 to 15 inch tall corn compared to 22 to 25 inch tall corn. If tankmixing these products with glyphosate, many of them recommend including an adjuvant and nitrogen regardless of the glyphosate formulation. Be sure to read the labels.

Agronomic Crop Insects – June 15, 2012

Friday, June 15th, 2012

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist;

Continue to sample for potato leafhoppers on a weekly basis. We can find both adults and nymphs in fields at this time. Once plants are yellow, yield loss has already occurred. The treatment thresholds are 20 per 100 sweeps on alfalfa 3 inches or less in height, 50 per 100 sweeps in 4-6 inch tall alfalfa and 100 per 100 sweeps in 7-11 inch tall alfalfa.

Field Corn
In recent years, we have seen an increase in native brown stinkbug damage to developing corn ears, especially when fields are adjacent to wheat fields. Remember, corn is most susceptible to this type of stink bug injury during ear formation before the tassel stage (VT). Bugs feed through the sheath, causing a dead spot on the ear. As the ear expands it becomes distorted and curves usually outward. In the last 2 years, we have also seen kernel damage, not distorted ears, on the edges of corn fields resulting from Brown Marmorated Stink bug (BMSB) feeding. We are continuing to survey fields to evaluate the extent of the damage from all species this season. This past week we have observed low levels of native brown stink bugs present in whorl stage corn. We also found the first BMSB eggs on corn in New Castle County.

We also observed and received a few reports of heavy aggregations of Japanese beetle adults in the whorls of field corn in New Castle County. Other areas of the country are also reporting earlier than normal emergence of beetles. Currently, they do not appear to be feeding on the plants. As a general rule, whorl stage corn is very tolerant to defoliation. The following link provides information on the potential for yield loss in bushels per acre from whorl stage defoliation.

As we indicated earlier this season, we were able to confirm the presence of Western Bean Cutworm moths in pheromone traps for the first time in 2011. The counts were extremely low and no damage was observed to corn ears, but this is a pest we will need to watch for in both field corn and sweet corn. Adult moths generally fly in mid-summer (we could see earlier flights in 2012) and females lay eggs on the upper surfaces of corn leaves. Unlike black cutworm that feeds on seedling stage corn, this is a later season corn pest, which feeds on tassels, silks, and developing kernels and can cause severe damage. Factors that contribute to the risk of potential problems include: (a) sandy soils, (b) a high percentage of acres in reduced and no-till production, (c) high humidity, and (d) presence of multiple host crops. Since these conditions fit Delaware, we will need to watch and see if this insect becomes a serious pest over the next couple of years. We have expanded our survey this year and will keep you updated if we see an increase in populations.

Be sure to sample fields for bean leaf beetles, potato leafhoppers, thrips, grasshoppers, green cloverworm and spider mites. Grasshopper populations have increased, especially in no-till fields. As barley and wheat are harvested and soybeans are planted, these fields will be susceptible to attack and grasshopper feeding can often cause stand loss. If stand reductions are occurring from plant emergence to the second trifoliate, a treatment should be applied. Although no precise thresholds are available, a treatment may be needed if you find one grasshopper per sweep and 30% defoliation from plant emergence through the pre-bloom stage. Numerous products are labeled for grasshopper control including a number of pyrethroids, dimethoate, Lorsban (chlorpyrifos), Orthene 97 (acephate) and Sevin XLR (carbaryl). Be sure to check all labels carefully before combining insecticides and herbicides since there are a number of restrictions on the labels.

Continue to watch carefully for spider mites. Be sure to scout the entire field for mites since windy conditions can result in mites being found throughout a field. Labeled materials include dimethoate, Lorsban, Hero (zeta-cypermethrin + bifenthrin) as well as a number of stand-alone bifenthrin products. All of these products need to be applied before mites explode. Be sure to read the labels for use rates and restrictions – including but not limited to combinations with herbicides, number of applications as well as the time between applications.

For those who read Weekly Crop Update, you know that the presence of soybean vein necrosis virus was confirmed for the first time in 2011 in Delaware soybean fields. The following link provides pictures and more information on this virus. . Although we do know that thrips transmit this virus, we do not know which species transmit the disease or when transmission occurs. Work is being done in the Midwest to identify the thrips vectors and possible other hosts of the virus that may harbor it and allow thrips feeding to move it to soybeans. In 2011, it did not appear that yield loss occurred; however, more information is needed to determine if it will cause yield reductions or lower seed quality in our area. In 2012, we will include thrips monitoring in our soybean surveys as well as look for virus symptoms.

By now, most growers should also be aware of another potential new soybean insect pest, the Kudzu bug. It has not been found in Delaware as of this date. In 2011, this bug was found as far north as one southern county in Virginia near the North Carolina border. It was first found in Georgia in 2009 and within two years made its way through North and South Carolina. We have received funding from the Delaware Soybean Board to survey for this pest so we will be able to alert you if it makes it to Delaware in 2012.

Potato Disease Advisory #12 – June 15, 2012

Friday, June 15th, 2012

Phillip Sylvester, Kent Co., Ag Agent;

Late blight Advisory
Location: Art and Keith Wicks Farm, Rt 9, Leipsic, Kent County, Delaware
Greenrow: April 20



Total DSV


Spray Interval Recommendation










































The spray interval recommendation has been lowered to 7 days. Rainfall and high humidity earlier in the week made conditions for late blight more favorable. The forecast is predicting sunny and dry weather, which should make conditions less favorable.  There are no reports of late blight in Delaware.

Continue to scout for late blight symptoms in local potato fields. Please notify and submit samples with symptoms to your local county extension office (Kent: 302-730-4000, Sussex: 302-856-7303) or contact the UD Plant Diagnostic clinic (302-831-1390) to have the sample confirmed. You may also email Nancy Gregory at or Phillip Sylvester at if you have a sample to submit.

Late blight has been found in the region. You can monitor where late blight is showing up by visiting the USA blight website at: Confirmations of late blight on potato and tomato are tracked and added to the map as they are reported.

Early Blight
A total of 424 P-days have accumulated at this site as of Thursday, June 14. Protectant fungicide applications targeted at early blight are recommended at this time. Commercial fungicide recommendations can be found in the 2012 Delaware Commercial Vegetable Recommendations Guide at

Poor Vigor in Later Plantings of Sweet Corn

Friday, June 15th, 2012

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist;

Each year we see sweet corn field fields with stand and plant vigor issues even in corn planted later in the season when soils were warm. There can be many causes for stand loss and weak seedlings: surface compaction and crusting, soil insects, soil diseases affecting seeds or seedlings, wet soils, fertilizer injury, deep planting, and herbicide injury are just a few examples.

Corn seedlings depend on the seed for food to grow for several weeks after emergence until sufficient leaf area has been produced and nodal roots have become established. Sweet corn is more susceptible stand loss and poor vigor problems than field corn because the seed has less food reserves. If you dig up low vigor seedlings and kernels are disintegrated and there is darkening at the mesocotyl attachment this means that the seeds deteriorated prematurely and the full content of the food reserves in the seed were not available for seedling development leading to the stand and vigor issues.

Seed deterioration and/or poor vigor seedlings can be due to diseases that cause seed rots, seedling blights and/or root rots. Fungal disease organisms such as Pythium, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Aspergillus, and Penicillium are common in soils and many can even be carried on seeds.

While most of these seed diseases are problems in cold and wet soils, Penicillium is a common problem in warmer soils. Penicillium can survive in the soil and can also be seed borne. Plants infected with Penicillium will be stunted and off-color and seeding roots and mesocotyls will show discoloration below ground. Blue-green mold may evident on or in the seed remnant.

Fungicide seed treatments are critical to control seedling diseases and a systemic fungicide such as difenoconazole (a component of Dividend Extreme) will be necessary for diseases such as Penicillium that can be seed borne.

Poor vigor can also result from poorer quality seed. Work with seed suppliers to obtain their best seed lots and the largest seed sizes. Avoid old seeds and obtain varieties that known for good seedling vigor.