Posts Tagged ‘20:15’

WCU Volume 20, Issue 15 – June 29, 2012

Friday, June 29th, 2012

PDF Version of WCU 20:15 – June 29, 2012

In this issue:

Vegetable Crops
Pumpkin Spray Program 2012
Fruit Loads in Vine Crops
Potato Disease Advisory #16 – June 28, 2012

Agronomic Crops
Grain Marketing Highlights

General
Glyphosate Resistant Palmer Amaranth on Delmarva

Announcements
1st Annual Eastern Shore Potato Field Workshop – July 10

Weather

1st Annual Eastern Shore Potato Field Workshop

Friday, June 29th, 2012

Tuesday, July 10, 2012     4:00 – 7:00 pm
Delmar, MD

Participants will learn about new varieties, agronomic practices for optimizing yield and quality, Colorado potato beetle and other potato insects and disease management for potato production in Maryland and the Delmarva Peninsula.

Come, see and feel new potato genotypes of table stock and processing tubers in varying colors of purple, red, and yellow.

Anyone who is growing potatoes or interested to grow potatoes should attend this meeting.

AGENDA
4:00 – 4:15 Registration

4:15 – 4:50 Colorado potato beetle management; pesticide efficiency trials results –  Dr. Galen Dively, Emeritus IPM Specialist, University of Maryland

4:50 – 5:00 Farm to Food Bank –  Amy Cawley

5:00 – 5:30 Agronomy of new potato lines and variety development program trial results – Sudeep Mathew, Agent, University of Maryland Extension

5:30- 6:15: Irrigation scheduling for managing crop water requirements – James Adkins, University of Delaware

6:15 – 6:45 Update on potato late blight and fungicide spray programs – Dr. Kate Everts, Vegetable Pathologist, University of Maryland

6:45 – 7:00 Evaluations, Q & A, tour plots and dinner

Attendees will earn Maryland, Delaware &Virginia pesticide re-certification credits.

LOCATION
Delmar, MD(approx. 1/4 mile past Mardela High School)

DIRECTIONS
MD:
Traveling Eastbound on Rt. 50 towards Delmar, MD, turn left onto Barren Creek Road, follow Barren Creek until you get to the stop sign. Turn left at stop sign and the farm will be the first farm lane on the right.

MD: Traveling Westbound on Rt. 50 towards Delmar, MD, turn right onto Barren Creek Road, follow Barren Creek until you get to the stop sign. Turn left at stop sign and the farm will be the first farm lane on the right.

DE: Traveling south on Rt. 13, turn right onto Rd 419/MD-DE Line Road/E State St. Continue on E. State St., then bear right onto Delmar Road. Follow Delmar Road until you pass Barren Creek Road on the left. Farm will be first farm lane on the right.

GPS coordinates: 38.465149,-75.735326

This event is free and open to the public. Register by July 6th. Contact Rhonda Barnhart at 410-228-8800 or rbarnhar@umd.edu for registration, or questions about details and directions.

“It is the policy of the Maryland Cooperative Extension Service that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, color, gender, disability, religion, age or national origin.”

If you have a disability that requires special assistance for your participation in this program please contact the University of Maryland Extension Office at (410) 288-8800 prior to July 5, 2012.

Glyphosate Resistant Palmer Amaranth on Delmarva

Friday, June 29th, 2012

Barbara Scott, Research Associate; bascott@udel.edu & Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu

Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth has been confirmed on Delmarva. There has been suspicion of glyphosate-resistance in the region, but this is the first year of confirmed resistance. This discovery is not surprising since Palmer amaranth has a tendency to develop resistance. Fields with Palmer amaranth (or suspected Palmer amaranth) should not be treated with glyphosate alone. In soybeans glyphosate should be tank-mixed with an ALS inhibiting herbicide (group 2) or PPO herbicide (group 9).

Grain Marketing Highlights – June 29, 2012

Friday, June 29th, 2012

Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu

U.S. Crop Conditions Continue to Decline
Tomorrow’s reports are important, however, focus on the weather is likely to take precedence over those reports barring any major surprises. For a look at the progression, since mid-May 2012, of what has been termed as a flash drought go to www.droughtmonitor.unl.edu. The animated version of the weather map explains the growing severity of the drought that has taken a grip on large portions of the Corn Belt over the last five to six weeks. So far the forecast has not changed with a decline in conditions likely in next Monday’s report. U.S. crop conditions worsened again in Monday afternoon’s report, go to Google and bring up U.S. Crop Conditions.

 

Pre-Report Planted Acreage and Quarterly Grain Stock Estimates
USDA’s June Planted Acreage and Quarterly Grain Stocks reports will be released Friday June 29. Given below are the pre-report industry average, high, low, March 30 estimates and last year’s final (2011) estimates. On average acreage increases are expected over the March 30 intentions report for new crop 2012 U.S. corn and soybean production. What matters to commodity prices is the size of the increase(s) in acreage and whether any downward revisions are seen, the later possibly being price positive especially with the dry weather being experienced throughout large portions of the Corn Belt.

Pre-report expectations are for quarterly U.S. corn stocks to be less than last year, soybean stocks to be higher, and all U.S. wheat stocks to be lower. Commodity traders will be looking for any possible surprises, deviations from pre-report expectations, that may be revealed in the report?

 

ACREAGE (million acres) USDA

3/30/2012

USDA

Final 2011

6/29/2012 Average High Low
Corn

95.96

96.76

94.30

95.86

91.92

Soybeans

75.58

76.54

74.50

73.90

74.98

All Wheat

56.85

59.34

55.90

55.91

54.41

Spring

12.66

13.48

12.00

11.98

12.39

Durum

2.30

2.45

2.18

2.22

1.37

Grain Sorghum

6.12

6.30

5.98

5.95

5.48

All Cotton

13.00

13.30

12.70

13.20

14.7

QUARTERLY STOCKS (billion bushels)
6/1/2012 Average High Low

3/1/2012

6/1/2011

Corn

3.182

3.500

2.982

6.009

3.670

Soybeans

0.640

0.662

0.595

1.372

0.619

Wheat

0.726

0.748

0.705

1.201

0.862

Grain Sorghum

0.051

0.062

0.040

0.108

0.080

Source: DTN

Marketing Strategy

Rising markets are tricky, especially weather markets. The reason being that weather markets can turn on a dime. So those that can advance sales are wise to do so on an incremental basis. Options can be used but must be used wisely when and if the opportunity is presented. For example, a $6.30 Dec ‘12 corn put has a premium of 52 cents per bushel in this morning’s trade. A decision to purchase the $6.30 put would guarantee a minimum price of $5.78 plus or minus basis. Assuming a 25 over basis for fall delivery equates to a minimum sales price of $6.03 per bushel or better for new crop corn. Duly noted the premium cost in the example is considered to be on the high side. Watching for opportunities to use a put might be worth considering as time passes?

Tomorrow’s reports could weigh in on the bump that we are getting from the weather market as could a change in the forecast. One observation is that open interest is declining as prices have risen? Last year the high price for new crop corn occurred on July 5. Overall we’d look for position squaring in today’s trade ahead of the report. Today’s export sales report as of the week ending June 21 was bearish for U.S. corn, neutral for soybeans, and bearish for wheat. Outside market forces are also currently running negative to commodity prices. Dec ‘12 corn futures are currently trading at $6.36; Nov ‘12 soybean futures at $14.06; and July SRW wheat at $7.23 per bushel.

For technical assistance on making grain marketing decisions contact Carl L. German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist.

Potato Disease Advisory #16 – June 28, 2012

Friday, June 29th, 2012

Phillip Sylvester, Kent Co., Ag Agent; phillip@udel.edu

Late blight Advisory
Location: Art and Keith Wicks Farm, Rt 9, Leipsic, Kent County, Delaware
Greenrow: April 20

Date

DSV

Total DSV

Accumulated
P-Days

Spray Interval Recommendation

5/24-5/28

8

65

279

5-days

5/28-5/30

3

68

294

5-days

5/31-6/3

3

71

331

7-days

6/4-6/6

0

71

355

10-days

6/7-6/11

0

71

395

10-days

6/11-6/14

8

79

424

7-days

6/15-6/18

0

79

460

10-days

6/19-6/21

1

80

478

10-days

6/22-6/25

2

82

507

10-days

6/25-6/27

0

82

524

10-days

 

The spray interval recommendation has been set at 10 days. The hot and dry weather we are experiencing should reduce the threat of late blight. There have been no reports in Delaware. Visit http://www.usablight.org/ to see where late blight has been found on potato and tomato in the region.

Commercial fungicide recommendations can be found in the 2012 Delaware Commercial Vegetable Recommendations Guide at http://ag.udel.edu/extension/vegprogram/pdf/potatoes.pdf.

Fruit Loads in Vine Crops

Friday, June 29th, 2012

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist; gcjohn@udel.edu

Early watermelons are sizing now, later plantings are setting fruit, pickle harvest is underway, and pumpkin planting is finishing up. A common question from growers and crop consultants is how many fruit should a plant carry and what will affect fruit set and fruit “carry” in vine crops.

For watermelons, a healthy, vigorous plant may set 3-7 fruits initially. However, for mid-size and larger watermelons, the plant will only carry 2-4 fruit at any time. Smaller fruited varieties will more fruits per plant but essentially the same amount of pounds as larger types. This is the carrying capacity of the plant and is directly related to the quantity of photosynthates being produced by the plant, mostly in the leaves. Any additional fruits, even if initially set, will be aborted. Once the first fruit ripens and is harvested, additional sets can be carried. To carry the maximum amount of fruit, it is necessary to maintain high plant vigor and good foliage health. This requires paying close attention to irrigation and fertility programs; having excellent disease, insect, and mite control; and having good pollinator activity during pollination and fruit set. If average fruit carry is less than 2 per plant in watermelons, that is a sign that the plants have reduced vigor and are under stress. Repeated fruit set depends on maintaining vine health through the season.

Another factor to consider is where fruit set is occurring. Crown sets are desired in watemelons, especially in early plantings. Crown sets are those that occur on nodes closest to the base of the plant, within the first 8 nodes. Having good crown sets requires that plants have good early growth so that adequate leaf area is produced that can support early set fruit as well as proper pollination (sufficient bees). Lack of crown set is a sign of poor early growth, early plant stress, or of problems with pollination.

With pumpkins the carrying capacity is similar; however, because pumpkins are not repeat harvested as are watermelons, harvest is limited to those fruits set initially. Medium sized Jack-o-lantern types will carry 1-2 fruits, larger types closer to 1. All others will be aborted. Smaller types will carry more depending upon their size in pounds (for example a variety with 5 lb. average will carry 4-7 fruits). Maximum carrying capacity in pumpkins is largely affected by variety (varieties with some heat tolerance will carry more fruits in our climate) and foliage health. Excess nitrogen fertilization will often delay fruit set in pumpkins.

In gynoecious cucumbers grown for once over pickle harvesting, there will be two fruits set on adjacent nodes that are ready for harvest at any one time. These will be set on nodes 2-6 commonly. The pollinizers that make up a small percentage of the population will set pickles every fifth node generally and therefore only one fruit will be ready for harvest. Yield reductions in gynoecious pickling cucumbers occur when there is a loss of set so that fruits are not on adjacent nodes. Parthenocarpic pickle varieties that set fruit without pollination will commonly have 4-6 pickles on 3-5 adjacent nodes ready for harvest at any one time. This allows them to be planted at much lower densities.

Pumpkin Spray Program 2012

Friday, June 29th, 2012

Kate Everts, Vegetable Pathologist, University of Delaware and University of Maryland; keverts@umd.edu

I frequently am asked for a “good” spray program for pumpkins. This is always difficult because a spray program depends on field history (i.e. has Phytophthora crown rot occurred in the field), production practices (no-till vs. bare ground), and the grower’s philosophy about control (Cadillac treatment program vs. minimal inputs).

Preventative practices are more effective than trying to minimize the damage from a disease after it occurs. Practices such as growing pumpkin on a no-till cover crop and using a powdery mildew tolerant cultivar will allow growers to stretch their spray interval.

Powdery mildew is the most common disease – it will damage leaves and the pumpkin “handles”. Downy mildew is an extremely damaging disease, however it does not overwinter here and sprays for downy mildew should only be applied when it is present in the Mid-Atlantic. Other diseases that occur, such as Bacterial wilt or virus diseases need to be treated by managing the vectors.

Keep the following in mind:
● Know what diseases are the most common on your farm. Previous problems with black rot, Phytophthora blight, anthracnose, scab or other diseases may indicate that these diseases are likely to be problems again.

● Begin spraying when vines begin to run.

● Use a protectant such as chlorothalonil every time (don’t worry about resistance developing).

● Spray every 7 to 14 days.

● The most common disease in our area is powdery mildew. However it is not always present early in the season. Scout 50 old leaves in your field for powdery mildew lesions. If powdery mildew is present in the field, apply materials that are targeted for it. If it is not present, spray with a protectant, then scout again before your next spray and adjust the spray accordingly.

● Familiarize yourself with the extension publication “Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations” section on pumpkins. Fungicides included in the “Recommendations” have been tested and performed well in the Mid-Atlantic region.

● A good fungicide spray program will increase yields and improve quality. The single best way to improve handle quality is to control foliar and fruit diseases with fungicides.

The program:
The best way to save money on your spray program is to start with a protectant program such as either chlorothalonil plus copper or mancozeb plus copper. Add targeted products to your protectant program based on what diseases are in the area or known to be on the farm (downy mildew, powdery mildew, Phytophthora crown and fruit rot, etc.)

Powdery Mildew: The following are targeted for powdery mildew and have been tested in our region. Apply them with a protectant. Select two that are in a different FRAC code groups, and alternate them.

Product (FRAC Code) Efficacy on Powdery Mildew
Quintec (13) excellent
Micronized Wettable Sulfur (M2) very good (may cause injury at high temperatures – see label)
Procure (3) good
Rally (3) good
Tebuconazole:Folicur, etc. (3) good
Inspire Super (3 + 9) good
Pristine (11 + 7) good

 

Downy Mildew: Management of downy mildew should use the following products tested in our area. Select two that are in different FRAC code groups, and alternate them.

Product (FRAC Code) Efficacy on Downy Mildew
Presidio (43) excellent
Ranman (21) excellent
Previcur Flex (28) good (the pathogen may be developing resistance)
Tanos (11 + 27) good in alternation or tank mix
Curzate (27) good in alternation or tank mix
Gavel (22 + M3) good in alternation or tank mix

 

Plectosporium can be managed with applications of Quadris Top, Cabrio or Flint.

Phytophthora crown and fruit rot needs to be managed intensively. In fields with potential problems, apply Mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold or Ultra Flourish) pre-plant for early season control. Once the canopy closes, subsoil between the rows to allow for faster drainage following rainfall. Fungicide applications will only suppress Phytophthora, and reduce spread.

When conditions favor Phytophthora crown and fruit rot development, tank mix one of the following fungicides with fixed copper:
Revus (FRAC code 40), Ranman (FRAC code 21), Presidio (FRAC code 43), Forum (FRAC code 40), or Tanos (FRAC code 11 + 27).