Posts Tagged ‘20:17’

Volume 20, Issue 17 – July 13, 2012

Thursday, July 12th, 2012

PDF Version of WCU 20:17 – July 13, 2012

 

Vegetable Crops
Vegetable Crop Insects
Pollination Disorders in Cucurbits
Potato Disease Advisory #19 – July 12, 2012
Leaf Scald in Sweet Corn Again in 2012
Tomato Pollination and Excessive Heat

Agronomic Crops
Agronomic Crop Insects
Grain Marketing Highlights
USDA Adjusts Disaster Relief

Announcements
Agronomic Crops Field Meeting @ Middletown – July 18
A Day in the Garden – Sussex Master Gardener Open House & Plant Sale – July 14

Weather


A Day in the Garden – Sussex Master Gardener Open House & Plant Sale

Thursday, July 12th, 2012

Saturday, July 14, 2012     10 a.m. to 2 p.m.
Sussex County Extension Office
Carvel Research and Education Center
16483 County Seat Hwy
Georgetown, DE 19947

Sussex County Master Gardeners invite you to their Open House. Look for the blue and gold tent in the Sussex County Demonstration Garden immediately behind the office building.

Master Gardeners will be on hand to answer your gardening questions. Visit our native plant, herb, shade, bog, annual, perennial, pond, butterfly and children’s gardens. Get ideas for gardening with limited space using raised beds and containers. What varieties grow well in Sussex County? Tour our azalea, hydrangea and annual trial gardens to find out. Plus…container gardening, vertical gardening, square foot gardening, raised beds, native plants, backyard habitat, soil testing, composting, annuals, perennials, trees and shrubs! Have a plant problem? Bring it to our plant clinic for identification and recommendations.

A Day in the Garden Highlights
Plant Sale…Back by popular demand! Proceeds benefit Master Gardeners’ educational outreach programs!

Accessible Gardening…Tour our gardens to get ideas for quick and easy ways to make gardening enjoyable for all. See tools and gardening aids, raised beds, containers and much more. Receive tips from a visiting physical therapist for staying fit and working in the garden at any age.

Children’s Garden… Enjoy “Peter Rabbit’s Adventures in Farmer McGregor’s Vegetable Garden.” Meet Farmer McGregor and Peter and hear their story. Go on a scavenger hunt or enjoy our butterflies, frogs and goldfish. What’s it like being inside a teepee trellis? Come and find out! Bring your camera for great photo opportunities. Come enjoy all our children’s activities – from learning about insects, to potting your own plant and more!

SHOWTIMES: 10:30 a.m., 11:30 a.m., 12:30 p.m., 1:30 p.m.

New to Vegetable Gardening? Learn about Square Foot Gardening, using raised beds and containers for growing vegetables.

Twenty Minute Workshops!
Herbal Vinegar and Flavored Honey – 11 a.m.
Shade Gardens – Noon
Five Ways to Save in the Garden – 1 p.m.

Tool Sharpening! Bring yours and learn how to sharpen them properly.

Rainbarrels are great ways to catch rainwater for use in the garden…Learn how to make your own!

We encourage everyone to join us in supporting the Delaware Does More Program, by donating a non-perishable food item!

More information is online at: http://ag.udel.edu/rec/Extension/MasterGardeners/OpenHouse.html

USDA Adjusts Disaster Relief

Thursday, July 12th, 2012

Robin Talley, Acting State Executive Director, USDA Farm Service Agency

USDA has announced three significant improvements to disaster relief programs: (1) a streamlined disaster designation process, (2) lower emergency loan interest rates, and (3) lower rental payment adjustments when Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) acres are used for emergency haying and grazing.

Counties labeled by the U.S. Drought Monitor as in a severe drought for eight consecutive growing-season weeks will automatically receive a secretarial designation as disaster areas. As a result, Kent and Sussex counties were designated as natural disaster areas effective July 12.

All qualified farm operators in Kent and Sussex counties, as well as in contiguous counties, may be eligible for low interest emergency loans from USDA’s Farm Service Agency (FSA), provided eligibility requirements are met. Effective July 15, emergency loan interest rates will be lowered from the current rate of 3.75% to 2.25%.

Livestock producers using CRP acres in the Emergency Haying and Grazing program will also get a financial break. Effective immediately, instead of losing 25% of their annual CRP rental payments when they turn that land over for much-needed forage, producers will only lose 10%.

Emergency haying and grazing has not yet been authorized in Delaware. Please contact your local FSA office if you are interested in haying or grazing CRP acreage, or for more information about the emergency loan program.

New Castle County: 302-832-3100, ext. 2

Kent County: 302-741-2600, ext. 2

Sussex County: 302-856-3990, ext. 2

Grain Marketing Highlights – July 13, 2012

Thursday, July 12th, 2012

Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu

Commodity Prices Turn Higher on Release of USDA’s July Supply and Demand Report
As one might have expected, upon the release of July’s USDA supply and demand report new and old crop corn, soybean, and SRW wheat prices continue to surge higher in e-trade this morning recording double digit gains across the board. USDA made major reductions in projected yield for U.S. corn and soybeans with the national corn yield estimated at 146 bushels per acre, a reduction of 20 bushels since last month. The yield projection for U.S. soybeans was lowered to 40.5 bushels per acre, a reduction of 3.4 bushels from the June estimates. Projected ending stocks for U.S. corn were reduced by almost 700 million bushels from last month for the 2012/13 marketing year. Further, U.S. ending stocks for soybeans were reduced 10 million bushels and U.S. all wheat ending stock projections were reduced by 30 million bushels from the June estimate. Stocks-to-use ratios were projected lower for corn, soybeans, and wheat in both the U.S. and World.

The reduction in the ending stocks estimate for wheat was the only drop not based upon a reduction in the projected yield. Total supply for wheat was increased by 5 million bushels from a 15 million bushel increase in beginning stocks, and a 10 million bushel decrease in production from fewer acres harvested. USDA increased the projected yield for all U.S. wheat from 45.4 last month to 45.6 bushels per acre in the July report. The primary reason for the reduction in the wheat ending stocks estimate was due to a 50 million bushel increase in the projection for U.S. wheat exports offset by a 5 million bushel increase in total supply, a 5 million bushel increase in food, and a 20 million bushel decrease in feed and residual use.

US Supply/Demand Summary, 7/11/12, Million Bushels

 

Corn

Soybeans

Wheat

Crop Year

11-12

12-13

12-13

11-12

12-13

12-13

11-12

12-13

12-13

Report Date

07/11

06/12

07/11

07/11

06/12

07/11

07/11

06/12

07/11

Carryin

1,128

851

903

215

175

170

862

728

743

Production

12,358

14,790

12,970

3,056

3,205

3,050

1,999

2,234

2,224

Imports

22

15

30

15

15

15

115

120

120

Tot Supply

13,508

15,656

13,903

3,286

3,395

3,235

2,977

3,082

3,087

 

Feed

4,550

5,450

4,800

169

220

220

Crush/Mill*

1,375

1,395

1,390

1,675

1,645

1,610

940

945

950

Ethanol Prod

5,050

5,000

4,900

Seed/Other

30

30

30

101

125

124

77

73

73

Exports

1,600

1,900

1,600

1,340

1,485

1,370

1,048

1,150

1,200

Total Use

12,605

13,775

12,720

3,116

3,255

3,105

2,234

2,388

2,423

Carryout

903

1,881

1,183

175

140

130

743

694

664

Stocks/Use Rate

7.20%

13.70%

9.30%

5.60%

4.30%

4.20%

33.30%

29.10%

27.40%

Avg Price

$6.10

$4.60

$5.90

$12.30

$13.00

$14.00

$7.25

$6.20

$6.80

*Excludes corn for ethanol

World S& D Summary, 7/11/12, Million Metric Tons

 

Corn

Soybeans

Wheat

Crop Year

11-12

12-13

12-13

11-12

12-13

12-13

11-12

12-13

12-13

Report Date

07/11

06/12

07/11

07/11

06/12

07/11

07/11

06/12

07/11

Carryin

124.31

129.19

129.37

70.13

53.36

52.51

197.23

195.56

197.18

Production

873.7

949.93

905.23

235.88

271.03

267.16

694.69

672.06

665.33

Total Supply

998.01

1,079.1

1,034.6

306.01

324.39

319.67

891.92

867.62

862.51

 

Feed

507.78

553.31

535.95

147.16

131.67

130.33

Crush

223.87

234.05

232.39

Other

360.86

370.08

364.56

29.55

30.90

30.76

547.58

550.20

549.73

Total Use

868.64

923.39

900.51

253.42

264.95

263.15

694.74

681.87

680.06

 

End Carryout

129.37

155.74

134.09

52.51

58.54

55.66

197.18

185.76

182.44

Stocks/Use Rat

14.90%

16.90%

14.90%

20.70%

22.10%

21.20%

28.40%

27.20%

26.80%

Market Strategy
It will take some time for traders to absorb what this report actually means in terms of 2012 U.S. corn and soybean production. There is a time lag between when the data is collected and when the estimates are published, roughly about a week to 10 days. U.S. crop conditions during that time did not improve.

It is important to note that we are currently in a demand driven market. Evidence of that is the nearly 50 million bushel increase in beginning stocks for U.S. corn in the ‘12/‘13 current marketing year that came from adjustments made in the last ‘11/‘12 marketing year. The increase in beginning stocks may be due to demand rationing. Commodity prices are up for a fourth week in a row. Prices do not go up forever. Earlier today in e-trade, Dec ‘12 corn futures were at $7.33; Nov ‘12 soybeans $15.67; and July ‘12 SRW wheat at $8.20 per bushel. Corn and soybean futures prices have softened considerably since early Wednesday morning reflecting, among other things, the extreme volatility in these markets and profit taking. By 2 p.m. EDT on Wednesday afternoon old and new crop corn, soybean, and SRW wheat futures prices were recording double digit losses from Tuesday’s close. USDA is currently considering possible drought relief measures that may be needed to assist farmers hit hard by the drought. An announcement along those lines should be forthcoming in the near future.

For technical assistance on making grain marketing decisions contact Carl L. German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist.

Agronomic Crop Insects – July 13, 2012

Thursday, July 12th, 2012

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Alfalfa
Continue to scout fields on a weekly basis for leafhoppers. It is also time to start watching for defoliators in alfalfa, including grasshoppers, corn earworm, webworms and beet armyworm.

Soybeans
In full season as well as soybeans planted after barley, the major defoliators continue to be Japanese beetles and green cloverworm. We are also starting to see an increase in bean leaf beetles and blister beetles. In double crop soybeans planted behind wheat, grasshoppers continue to be the predominant defoliator present at this time. Remember, at the bloom to pod fill stage in full season soybeans, the defoliation threshold drops to 10-15% defoliation. Double crop soybeans can not handle as much defoliation as full season fields at the pre-bloom or pod-fill stages.

Economic levels of spider mites continue to be found in both irrigated and dry land fields in Kent and Sussex counties. It is important to continue to scout the entire field since hot spots can be found throughout fields and edge treatments may not be effective. As a reminder, under heavy mite pressure and extended hot, dry weather, it often takes extended periods of free moisture on leaves, high humidity during the day and cool evening temperatures to get an increase in the fungal pathogens that can significantly reduce exploded mite populations. If egg populations are high at the time of application, two applications will mostly likely be needed. Be sure to read the labels for use rates and restrictions – there is a limit on the number of applications as well as the time between applications on all of the materials labeled for spider mite control. Lastly, be sure to consult your crop insurance provider regarding their rulings this year regarding the need to make an attempt to control mites under drought stress conditions.

Tomato Pollination and Excessive Heat

Thursday, July 12th, 2012

Jerry Brust, IPM Vegetable Specialist, University of Maryland; jbrust@umd.edu

The extreme heat we had will play havoc on tomato fruit that was just flowering or ripening, causing problems in fruit development due to poor pollination. Constant exposure of a tomato plant to high temperatures (day/night temperatures of 95/80°F) significantly reduces the number of pollen grains produced and released per flower and decreases the pollen’s viability. Most pollen is shed between 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. and 3-hours or more at 103oF on two consecutive days can cause fruit set failure. Temperatures at night may play a more important role in determining whether or not pollination takes place than day time temperatures. This is because ideal fruit set occurs within a very narrow range of night temperatures (60°-70° F). If tomato plants experience night temperatures above 75°F, interference with the growth of pollen tubes can occur preventing normal fertilization and causing blossom drop (Fig. 1). Prolonged high humidity (>80%) also will hinder good fruit set as the pollen either will not shed freely or the pollen grains may bind together, resulting in poor pollination. Poor pollination may result in under-size fruit that looks ‘normal’ but is just a great deal smaller. Other problems include poor development of the gel inside the fruit. This causes the fruit to appear angular and soft when squeezed (Fig. 2). When this type of fruit is cut in half, open cavities can be seen between the seed gel and the outer wall (Fig. 2). High temperatures during the ripening period additionally can cause ‘internal whitening’ in tomato fruit (Fig. 2). This white tissue only is noticeable when the fruit is cut. The hard, white areas tend to be in the vascular tissues in the outer and center walls of the fruit. Low potassium levels are also associated with ‘internal whitening’. There is not a great deal that can be done about any of the environmental problems other than to be sure to water enough and do not over fertilize during these extreme conditions. Although growth regulating chemicals can be used sometimes to help fruit set under cooler than ideal conditions there is no growth regulator that will induce normal fruit development under high temperature conditions.

 

Figure 1. Blossom drop (arrows) in tomato due to high night temperatures

Figure 2. Angular sides of fruit due to poor pollination. When cut open you can see the lack of gel resulting in pockets inside the fruit as well as ‘internal whitening’–spots in the outer wall.

Leaf Scald in Sweet Corn Again in 2012

Thursday, July 12th, 2012

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist; gcjohn@udel.edu

Several sweet corn varieties in our fresh market bicolor variety trial are showing leaf scald symptoms in 2012. We saw similar leaf scald last year in processing varieties. Leaf scald is a physiological disorder similar to necrotic sunburn in fruits and vegetables. It occurs when leaf temperatures rise above a critical level, cells die rapidly, leaving a bleached white appearance. While newly emerged leaves in the upper canopy of susceptible varieties that are the most exposed are the most likely to scald, some of the leaf scald we are seeing this year has progressed deeper into the canopy, even showing up on some of the corn husks. Leaf scald occurs most commonly when temperatures are in the high 90s or over 100, skies are clear (high solar radiation), and humidity is low. While effect on yield is usually minimal, leaf scorch at the ear leaf level can affect kernel fill.

Leaf scald symptoms on fresh market sweet corn in a 2012 trial of bicolor varieties.

Potato Disease Advisory #19 – July 12, 2012

Thursday, July 12th, 2012

Phillip Sylvester, Kent Co., Ag Agent; phillip@udel.edu

Late blight Advisory
Location: Art and Keith Wicks Farm, Rt 9, Leipsic, Kent County, Delaware
Greenrow: April 20

Date

DSV

Total DSV

Accumulated
P-Days

Spray Interval Recommendation

6/4-6/6

0

71

355

10-days

6/7-6/11

0

71

395

10-days

6/11-6/14

8

79

424

7-days

6/15-6/18

0

79

460

10-days

6/19-6/21

1

80

478

10-days

6/22-6/25

2

82

507

10-days

6/25-6/27

0

82

524

10-days

6/28-7/2

0

82

549

10-days

7/3-7/5

0

82

561

10-days

7/6-7/11

0

82

593

10-days

 

The spray interval recommendation is 10 days. The hot and dry weather we continue to experience should reduce the threat of late blight. There have been no reports in Delaware. Visit http://www.usablight.org/ to see where late blight has been found on potato and tomato in the region.

Commercial fungicide recommendations can be found in the 2012 Delaware Commercial Vegetable Recommendations Guide at http://ag.udel.edu/extension/vegprogram/pdf/potatoes.pdf.

Pollination Disorders in Cucurbits

Thursday, July 12th, 2012

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist; gcjohn@udel.edu

Watermelon harvest is underway on Delmarva; cantaloupe harvest started early this year, squash and cucumbers have been producing for over a month; and pumpkins and winter squash are setting fruit in earlier plantings. Each year, we see pollination problems with vine crop fruits, especially when weather conditions are unfavorable.

Signs of incomplete pollination in cucurbits include bottlenecked fruit or fruit with a pinched end, crooked or lopsided fruit, fruit small in size or nub-like; and fruits with prominent lobes or that are triangular in shape. Causes of incomplete pollination may be inadequate pollen transfer by pollinating insects; inadequate pollen sources (pollenizers); or hot, dry weather that reduces pollen viability or that desiccates flower parts during pollination. Research has shown that a minimum of 1,000 grains of pollen are required to be distributed over the three lobes of the stigma of the female flower of a watermelon to produce a uniformly shaped fruit.

Hollow cavities in fruit and vacant seed cavities are related to lack of seed formation, again traced back to poor pollination. Fruit tissue separation, such as hollow heart in watermelon, may also be due to inadequate pollination and may be worsened by rapid fluctuation in environmental conditions affecting fruit development.

Vegetable Crop Insects – July 13, 2012

Thursday, July 12th, 2012

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Lima Beans
Continue to scout for spider mites, stink bugs, lygus bugs and corn earworm. Early detection and treatment will be needed to achieve spider mite control. In addition, multiple sprays may be needed for mites, especially if populations are high at treatment time and/or numerous eggs are present. As soon as pin pods are present, be sure to watch carefully for plant bug and stinkbug adults and nymphs as well as corn earworm larvae. As a general guideline, treatment should be considered for plant bugs and stink bugs if you find 15 adults and/or nymphs per 50 sweeps. A treatment will be needed for corn earworm if you find one corn earworm larvae per 6 ft-of-row.

Melons
Continue to scout all melons for aphids, cucumber beetles, and spider mites. We continue to find fields with numerous “worm” species as well as cucumber beetle adults feeding on rinds of watermelons. The two most commonly found “worm” species are beet armyworms and yellow striped armyworm. It is important to know which pest is causing the damage to make a chemical selection. Materials that provide beetle control will not necessarily provide worm control, especially if you are finding beet armyworm in the field.

Peppers
As soon as the first flowers can be found, be sure to consider a corn borer treatment. Depending on local corn borer trap catches, sprays should be applied on a 7-day schedule once pepper fruit is ¼ – ½ inch in diameter. Be sure to check local moth catches in your area by calling the Crop Pest Hotline (instate: 800-345-7544; out of state: 302-831-8851) or visiting our website at: http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/traps/latestblt.html. You will also need to consider a treatment for pepper maggot. Be sure to watch carefully for beet armyworm larvae since they can quickly defoliate plants. In addition to beet armyworm feeding on leaves you should also watch for an increase in aphid populations. We are starting to find aphid populations increasing and they can explode quickly, especially where beneficial insect activity is low. As a general guideline, treatment may be needed if you find one or more aphids per leaf and beneficial activity is low.

Pumpkins
We are seeing a significant increase in the number of squash bug adults as well as egg laying in most pumpkin fields throughout the state. In addition, there has been an increase in yellow striped armyworm feeding on the leaves. Squash bug adults and nymphs can cause damage by sucking nutrients from leaves as well as disrupting the flow of water and nutrients resulting in wilted plants. Before wilting, yellow specks can develop on the foliage that eventually turn brown. Under heavy feeding pressure, small plants can be killed and larger plants can have many affected leaves and vines. Squash bugs will also feed directly on the fruit, and it has become an increasing problem in recent years. Thresholds have been developed in other areas at the region aimed at killing small nymphs, which tend to be easier to control. Fields should be scouted for eggs and time treatments for the emergence of the first nymphs. The treatment threshold is one egg mass per plant. Seedlings, new transplants, and flowering plants are the most critical growth stages to monitor. Please refer to the following link for more information and pictures of eggs, nymphs and adults http://www.vegedge.umn.edu/vegpest/cucs/squabug.htm.

Processing Snap Beans
As corn borer and corn earworm populations start to increase, you will need to consider treatments for both insect pests. Sprays are needed at the bud and pin stages on processing beans for corn borer control. As earworm trap catches increase, an earworm spray will also be needed at the pin stage. You will need to check our website for the most recent trap catches to help decide on the spray interval between the pin stage and harvest for processing snap beans (http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/traps/latestblt.html and http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/thresh/snapbeanecbthresh.html).

Sweet Corn
Continue to sample all fields from the whorl through pre-tassel stage for corn borers, corn earworms and fall armyworm. A treatment should be considered when 12-15% of the plants are infested. Since fall armyworm feed deep in the whorls, sprays should be directed into the whorls and multiple applications are often needed to achieve control. The first silk sprays will be needed for corn earworm as soon as ear shanks are visible. Be sure to check both blacklight and pheromone trap catches for silk spray schedules since the spray schedules can quickly change. Trap catches are generally updated on Tuesday and Friday mornings (http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/traps/latestblt.html and http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/thresh/silkspraythresh.html). You can also call the Crop Pest Hotline (in state: 800-345-7544; out of state: 302-831-8851).