Posts Tagged ‘20:2’

WCU Volume 20, Issue 2 – March 30, 2012

Friday, March 30th, 2012

PDF Version of WCU 20:2 – March 30, 2012

In this issue:

Vegetable Crops
Vegetable Crops are Off to and Early Start
Risk of Stewart’s Wilt in Sweet Corn is High
Vegetable Fungicide Updates for 2012
Early Peas Damaged by Freezing

Fruit Crops
Weather Worries for Fruit Growers
Plasticulture Strawberry Fertilization
Strawberry Angular Leafspot

Agronomic Crops
Early-Season Soybean Rust Situation
Corn Herbicide and Soil Insecticide Interactions
Burndown No-Till Fields
Grain Marketing Highlights

Season Extension Workshop & Tour – April 20


Burndown No-Till Fields

Friday, March 30th, 2012

Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist;

Fields that will be planted to no-till corn or soybeans may have excess weed growth due to the warm winter. This will make burndown treatments more challenging, and in some cases it is unrealistic to expect complete control with only one application. In those cases, you may need an application now, followed by an additional application at planting. For weeds that are hard to kill with glyphosate, additional herbicides such as 2,4-D can enhanced the control (for instance, mustards); while other herbicide combinations can reduce glyphosate control (for instance, atrazine in combination with glyphosate for ryegrass control). Be sure to assess each field, and determine the best approach. Do not assume you can spray a week ahead of planting and achieve a clean seedbed to plant into.

Corn Herbicide and Soil Insecticide Interactions

Friday, March 30th, 2012

Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist;

Last year a few farmers had severe corn injury because they had used an organophosphate insecticide and an ALS-inhibiting herbicide at planting. Remember, there a number of corn herbicides that have label precautions about use when an organophosphate insecticide is used at planting. The herbicides include both soil-applied and postemergence herbicides. This includes the insecticides Counter (terbufos), Lorsban (chlorpyrifos), and Fortress (chlorethoxyfos). The list of herbicides is quite extensive and includes multiple herbicide families so follow this link for a detailed list of herbicides

Unfortunately, most corn seed companies no longer designate hybrids as either IT or IR. So if you are not sure, take the cautious approach and assume the hybrid is a “standard” hybrid (no enhanced tolerance for imidazolinone herbicides); and follow the most restrictive guidelines.

Early Peas Damaged by Freezing

Friday, March 30th, 2012

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist;

Early peas have suffered damage by the freezing winds on Monday night. Peas normally will stand cold temperatures down to the low 20s. However the combination of high winds (gusts up to 50 mph), freezing temperatures (25-30°F), and peas well ahead of schedule on growth (some as tall as 6 inches) set up conditions for plant damage. Areas protected by wood lines and hedgerows were not damaged. Peas planted later that were just cracking the ground were also not damaged.

Peas are interesting in that if the top is frosted to the ground level, they will develop new stems from dormant buds below ground. There will be 1-3 new stems that develop. This will be seen within a week after the frost. These stems will develop and flower later than undamaged plants. Generally, frost damaged peas will yield 5-20% less due to the differences in maturities in the field and having weaker plants.

Season Extension Workshop & Tour

Thursday, March 29th, 2012

Friday, April 20, 2012     1:00-4:00 p.m.
Delaware State University
Outreach & Research Center
Smyrna-Leipsic Road, Smyrna, DE

This workshop for farmers and Ag service providers is presented by DSU Cooperative Extension.

Penn State University Professor of Vegetable Crops, Bill Lamont,
is a renowned expert in plasticulture and high tunnels.  He will teach participants how to prepare their tunnels for the growing season including choosing the right locations, soil preparations, and even trellising options.

DSU’s Dr. Rose Ogutu will share her experience of last season’s high tunnel vegetable production, including growing organically and extending the season.

DSU’s Mike Wasylkowski will show off some of his successes using various season extension technologies including transplants, row covers, and more.

Topics Include:
· Soil Preparations
· High Tunnel Options
· Tunnel Tomatoes
· Trellising Choices
· Greens and Other Veggies
· Vegetable Transplants
· Long-Storage Products
· Staggered Plantings
· Farmer Perspective

Participants can make hands-on comparisons of materials and techniques while touring the farm!

To register for the free workshop or for more information, call Jason Challandes at 302-388-2241 or by emailing

RSVP by Friday April 13, 2012

Grain Marketing Highlights – March 30, 2012

Thursday, March 29th, 2012

Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist;

Corn Stocks Down; Soybean Stocks Up; All Wheat Stocks Down
Corn stocks in all positions on March 1, 2012 totaled 6.01 billion bushels, down 8 percent from March 1, 2011 and 150 million bushels below average of pre-report trade expectations. Of the total stocks, 3.19 billion bushels are stored on farms, down 6 percent from a year earlier. Off-farm stocks, at 2.82 billion bushels, are down 10 percent from a year ago. The December 2011 – February 2012 indicated disappearance is 3.64 billion bushels, compared with 3.53 billion bushels during the same period last year.

Soybeans stored in all positions on March 1, 2012 totaled 1.37 billion bushels, up 10 percent from March 1, 2011 and 11 million bushels less than average pre-report expectations. Soybean stocks stored on farms are estimated at 555 million bushels, up 10 percent from a year ago. Off-farm stocks, at 817 million bushels, are up 10 percent from last March. Indicated disappearance for the December 2011 – February 2012 quarter totaled 998 million bushels, down 3 percent from the same period a year earlier.

All wheat stored in all positions on March 1, 2012 totaled 1.20 billion bushels, down 16 percent from a year ago and 35 million bushels less than average pre-report expectations. On-farm stocks are estimated at 217 million bushels, down 25 percent from last March. Off-farm stocks, at 983 million bushels, are down 14 percent from a year ago. The December 2011 – February 2012 indicated disappearance is 462 million bushels, down 9 percent from the same period a year earlier. For grain stocks:

Corn Planted Acreage Up; Soybean Acreage Down; All Wheat Acreage Up
Corn growers intend to plant 95.9 million acres of corn for all purposes in 2012, up 4 percent from last year, 9 percent higher than in 2010, and above average pre-report trade expectations of 94.7 million acres. If realized, this will represent the highest planted acreage in the United States since 1937 when an estimated 97.2 million acres were planted.

Soybean planted area for 2012 is estimated at 73.9 million acres, down 1 percent from last year, down 5 percent from 2010, and below average pre-report expectations of 75.5 million acres. Compared with 2011, planted area is down or unchanged across the Corn Belt and Great Plains with the exceptions of Illinois, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

All wheat planted area is estimated at 55.9 million acres, up 3 percent from 2011, and above average pre-report trade expectations of 57.6 million acres. The 2012 winter wheat planted area, at 41.7 million acres, is up 3 percent from last year but down 1 percent from the previous estimate. Of this total, about 29.9 million acres are Hard Red Winter, 8.4 million acres are Soft Red Winter, and 3.5 million acres are White Winter. Area planted to other spring wheat for 2012 is estimated at 12.0 million acres, down 3 percent from 2011. Of this total, about 11.3 million acres are Hard Red Spring wheat. Durum planted area for 2012 is estimated at 2.22 million acres, up 62 percent from the previous year. For prospective plantings:

USDA Export Sales Report 3/29 (for the week ending 3/22)
Pre-report export estimates for corn ranged from 25.6 to 31.5 million bushels. Export sales were reported at 6.2 million bushels with 5.1 million bushels scheduled for ‘11/’12, a marketing year low. This was well below the 16.7 million bushels needed this week to stay on pace with USDA’S demand projection of 1.7 billion bushels. Weekly shipments of 25.3 million bushels were below the 33.8 million bushels needed this week. This report is viewed as bearish.

Pre-report estimates for weekly export sales of soybeans ranged from 18.4 to 27.6 million bushels. Exports sales were reported at 21.7 million bushels with 17.3 million bushels scheduled for ‘11/‘12. This was above the 5.9 million bushels needed this week to stay on pace with USDA’s demand projection of 1.275 billion bushels. Shipments of 20.6 million bushels were above the 13.8 million bushels needed this week. This report is viewed as bullish.

Pre-report estimates for wheat exports ranged from 18.4 to 25.7 million bushels. Weekly export sales were reported at 14.8 million bushels with 8.3 million bushels scheduled for ‘11/‘12. This was above the 6.8 million bushels needed this week to stay on pace with USDA’s demand projection of 1 billion bushels. Weekly shipments of 16.2 million bushels were below the 22.4 million bushels needed this week. This report should be viewed as bearish.

Market Strategy
Today’s prospective plantings and quarterly grain stocks reports present a mixed bag for the corn, soybean, and wheat markets. Analysts are suggesting nearby corn futures to be oversold. However, with planted acreage exceeding expectations corn futures may be hard pressed to continue their seasonal rally at the present time. Soybeans could emerge as the leader from today’s reports. Market attention will now turn to weather conditions and planting/crop progress. In overnight trade, Dec ‘12 corn futures closed at $5.28; Nov ’12 soybean futures at $13.05; and July ‘12 SRW wheat at $6.29 per bushel.

For technical assistance on making grain marketing decisions contact Carl L. German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist.

Strawberry Angular Leafspot

Thursday, March 29th, 2012

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist;

There have been several samples from DE and MD with angular leafspot that have been diagnosed this spring. As you can see from the picture this bacterial leafspot produces angular watersoaked spots initially (Figure 1) that turn dark and eventually brown with time (Figure 2). The bacteria are limited by the vein pattern in the leaf which gives it the diagnostic angular pattern. This disease can cause leaf loss, and when conditions are very favorable during fruit set, the calyx can become infected and that can reduce the marketability of the fruit. Wet conditions favor the disease, especially if irrigation is needed for frost protection. The bacteria that cause the spring symptoms come from systemically infected overwintered plants and dead leaves, and from infected transplants. Copper sprays can be effective in limiting spread once it is identified but over-application can be phytotoxic, so be careful. Prevention of angular leafspot in the plant nursery and its dissemination in transplants is crucial to controlling this disease.

Figure 1. Watersoaking symptoms

Figure 2. Angular leafspot symptoms

Plasticulture Strawberry Fertilization

Thursday, March 29th, 2012

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist;

Plasticulture strawberries should have had nitrogen applications already, prior to bloom. Addition of 3-5 lbs of nitrogen per acre per week may be warranted. Nitrogen is critical prior to and during early bloom. Including potassium at a 1:1 or 1:2 ratio with nitrogen will often improve fruit quality (sugars). Use of tissue testing throughout the strawberry season is recommended to monitor nitrogen and potassium levels. Targets are 500 ppm petiole sap nitrate and 2500 ppm petiole sap potassium. Additional calcium may be needed as the season progresses.

Weather Worries for Fruit Growers

Thursday, March 29th, 2012

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist;

Peaches, plums, and apricots have bloomed, several weeks ahead of normal. Strawberries have been blooming for weeks in plasticulture systems. These fruit crops are at great risk of losses due to freeze events. Other fruit may also flower early and be at risk. For example, pears are in bloom now and cherries and blueberries are starting to bloom.

Normally, the average date of the last frost in Delaware is somewhere between April 20-25. We still have four weeks of worry ahead for our fruiting crops.

For all these fruit crops the most susceptible stage of injury is when flowers have just opened. Closed buds have higher cold tolerance as do small fruit. For most fruits, critical temperature for losses after fruits have formed is 28° F.

 Plasticulture strawberries blooming 3- 29-2012.

Frost and freeze protection methods vary with fruits and the type of freeze expected. Advective freezes occur with freezing temperatures and high winds. This is the most difficult to protect against. For strawberries, two layers of floating row covers may be the most effective strategy for advective freezes. Double covers have been shown to be more effective than single heavy covers in this case. Irrigation along with double covers can provide even more protection if done properly.

Radiational freezes occur on cold, still nights. In this case cold air is near the ground and warmer air is above. Wind machines and helicopters have been successfully used to stir the air and raise the temperatures in orchards in this case. Row covers in strawberries will protect against radiational freezes too.

Irrigation has also been successfully used for frost protection but it has to be done properly. How irrigation works is that as ice forms on plants heat is released. The key is to keep ice formation occurring through the night and continue through melt in the morning. Remember that initially, until ice starts forming, there will actually be evaporative cooling of the plant. The latent heat of fusion (water freezing) will release heat (approximately 144 BTUs/lb of water), whereas evaporative cooling will absorb heat from the plant (absorbing approximately 1,044 BTUs/lb of water) and lower plant temperatures. Therefore, irrigation must start well above critical temperatures. Also, the volume of water needed needs to be matched with the expected temperature drop and wind speed. In addition, uniformity of water application is critical. This is difficult to do in high wind situations.

This past week temperatures dropped below freezing in parts of Delaware on three nights, with some areas in the mid-twenties. NOAA has predicted an increased risk for lower than normal temperatures in the Mid-Atlantic region for the next 2 weeks.

Vegetable Fungicide Updates for 2012

Thursday, March 29th, 2012

Kate Everts, Vegetable Pathologist, University of Delaware and University of Maryland;

The following is a very brief overview of recent fungicide registrations and new updates that may be of use to vegetable growers in 2012. This is not meant to be a comprehensive list. Also, I have not run research trials for most of these product uses, and therefore cannot say anything about efficacy in comparison to other products. Remember to follow all label directions carefully. Before use, check each label for rates, information on resistance management, tank mix incompatibilities and other information.

  • · Prophyte and some other phosphorous acid fungicides are available for use on bean cottony leak (Pythium cottony leak).
  • · Quintec now has a Section 2ee label for the suppression of bacterial leaf spot on pepper in some states in the mid-Atlantic (including DE and MD, but not PA).
  • · Both chlorothalonil and Manzate Pro Stick labels have added anthracnose fruit rot on pepper.
  • · The Ranman label now includes spinach white rust as well as club root and downy mildew of cole crops (brassicas).
  • · Quilt Xcel and Stratego YLD are labeled for sweet corn rust.
  • · A new OMRI approved copper, Nordox, has a broad label that includes many vegetables and use in the greenhouse on some crops.
  • · Quash fungicide is labeled on potato and sweet potato for many diseases including early blight and white mold.
  • · A label expansion for Cabrio lists management of stem rots caused by Rhizoctonia and Sclerotinia and Southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii) on tomato, pepper and eggplant.
  • · Fontelis has received a label for many vegetables including brassicas (Alternaria, gray mold, powdery mildew, Sclerotinia); tomato and other fruiting vegetables (early blight, gray mold, powdery mildew, Septoria leaf spot, etc.); Leafy vegetables (Alternaria, Cercospora, Septoria, etc.); Legume crops (Alternaria, anthracnose, Ascochyta, Botrytis, etc.); and some root vegetables (early blight, Cercospora leaf spot, Sclerotium rolfsii, etc.)
  • · Luna Experience has received a label for use on watermelon in DE and the label is pending in MD. Diseases on the label include gummy stem blight, anthracnose, and powdery mildew.