Posts Tagged ‘20:5’

WCU Volume 20, Issue 5 – April 20, 2012

Thursday, April 19th, 2012

PDF Version of WCU 20:5 – April 20, 2012

In this issue:

Vegetable Crops
Vegetable Crop Insects
Scout Emerging Potato Fields for Seed-Born Late Blight Infections
Updated Fertilization Recommendations for Drip Irrigated Crops
Plastic Mulch Beds and Dry Soils
Early Season Pythium and Phytophthora Control in Pepper and Tomato Crops

Agronomic Crops
Agronomic Crop Insects
Grain Marketing Highlights

Announcements
2012 Wye REC Strawberry Twilight – May 9
University of Delaware Small Fruit Twilight – May 22

Weather

University of Delaware Small Fruit Twilight

Thursday, April 19th, 2012

Tuesday, May 22, 2012     6:00-8:00 p.m.
Carvel Research and Education Center
16483 County Seat Highway
Georgetown, DE 19947

Participants will have the opportunity to tour experimental plots and hear about current research on June-bearing and day-neutral strawberries, blueberries and blackberries.

Strawberry research includes plasticulture variety trials with USDA selections from the Beltsville breeding program; summer planted and overwintered day neutral varieties; spring 2011 planted, overwintered, and crown thinned day neutral varieties for summer 2012 production; use of shade cloth and reflective mulch for temperature reduction in day neutral strawberries; and root inoculant and mustard seed meal treatments for root health and soil disease management in strawberries.

Blueberry research includes a 2011 planted variety trial with southern highbush selections; a mulching material study; and a planting hole treatment study.

Blackberry plots are concentrated on evaluating primocane bearing fall fruiting varieties from the University of Arkansas breeding program.

Also featured will be insect management programs and emerging insect pests of small fruits (spotted wing Drosophila).   Extension specialists and associates will be on hand to lead the tour and answer questions.

Strawberry tastings and light refreshments served.

To register, contact Karen Adams at (302) 856-2585 ext. 540 or email adams@udel.edu

For additional program information, contact Gordon Johnson, gcjohn@udel.edu, (302)-856-2585 ext. 590, gcjohn@udel.edu.

Grain Marketing Highlights – April 20, 2012

Thursday, April 19th, 2012

Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist; clgerman@udel.edu

Corn Analysis
U.S. corn planting was reported to be 17 percent complete as of April 15 as compared to 7 percent last week and 5 percent for the five year average. Corn posted double digit gains overnight due to rumored Chinese buying interest. The strong inverse in the May and July futures spread is indicative that the corn market remains bullish through the end of the current marketing year.

The weekly corn export sales report was slightly bullish. Pre-report export sales were estimated at 33.5 million bushels. The weekly report placed total export sales at 11.8 million bushels, below the 15.3 million bushels needed to stay on pace with USDA’s demand projection. Weekly shipments were well above the 34.7 million bushels needed this week.

Soybean Analysis
Soybean contracts also recorded double digit gains in overnight trade across the board. Long term fundamentals remain bullish with some pressure stemming from noncommercial long-liquidation. A slackening in contract spreads suggests some commercial selling has taken place.

Weekly export sales of 44.8 million bushels and shipments of 18.1 million bushels were well above that needed this week to stay on pace with USDA’s demand projection of 1.29 billion bushels. The soybean export sales report was bullish.

Wheat Analysis
Technically, the Chicago wheat market is in a position to establish a short-term uptrend, according to DTN analysts. Support stems from the corn market and the dollar. Fundamentally, the market remains long-term bearish.

Weekly exports of 16.2 million bushels were reported to be well above the 4.3 million bushels needed this week. Weekly shipments of 23.2 million bushels were below the 25 million bushels needed this week. This report should be viewed as neutral to slightly bullish.

Market Strategy
The extent of the current overnight rally may prove to be short lived, “buy the rumor – sell the fact”. Large portions of the Corn Belt received ample rainfall over the weekend, delaying field work in some places. Outside market forces will continue to impact these markets as we move forward. The Dow is currently at 13,026 with the U.S. dollar index at 79.5 . Currently, Dec ‘12 corn futures are trading at $5.42; Nov ‘12 soybeans at $13,55; with July SRW wheat at $6.27 per bushel.

For technical assistance on making grain marketing decisions contact Carl L. German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist.

Agronomic Crop Insects – April 20, 2012

Thursday, April 19th, 2012

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Alfalfa
Continue to scout fields for both alfalfa weevil and pea aphids. As alfalfa approaches harvest, the decision to cut instead of treat should be considered as a management option for alfalfa weevil. However, this option should only be used if you plan to cut shortly after you find an economic threshold level of weevils since damage can occur quickly. Cutting should only be considered as a management option if you can cut within 3- 5 days of finding an economic level. As you get close to harvest, be sure to check labels carefully for time between application and harvest.

Field Corn
Be sure to check for cutworm feeding as soon as plants emerge, even if an at planting insecticide or a Bt corn was used for cutworm control. Although conditions have been extremely dry for slug damage, with the predicted rains this weekend and into early next week there is always the chance that we could see damage in fields with high populations before planting. When sampling this spring, we did find a significant numbers of grey garden, marsh and banded slugs under shingle traps, especially in fields with heavy double crop stubble. Although we see more problems in corn when conditions remain cooler and soil remains wet, it is the generally during the warmer days of April when we start to see significant egg hatch. Although no thresholds are available, past experience in the Mid-Atlantic has indicated that levels of five or more grey garden slugs per square foot have indicated the potential for a problem. Be sure to read the following fact sheet from Ohio for more information on slug management: http://ohioline.osu.edu/ent-fact/pdf/0020.pdf

Small Grains
Low levels of grass sawfly and armyworm larvae can be found in fields throughout the state. As indicated last week, outbreak years most often occur when we have higher levels of local overwintering populations as well as high populations of moths migrating from the south. A recent report from Kentucky indicated that although moth captures did begin very early this year and the first several weeks appeared to be greater than the rolling 5-year average, recent counts have dropped below the 5-year average. Our first week of black light trapping shows low levels of moth activity, but only time and weekly scouting will tell if we have economic levels in our fields: http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/traps/currentblttaw.html. Remember, armyworm larvae are nocturnal so look for larvae at the base of the plants during the day. As a general guideline, a treatment should be considered if you find one armyworm per foot of row for barley and 1-2 per foot of row for wheat. Since sawflies feed on the plants during the day, small sawfly larvae can often be detected early using a sweep net. However, there is no threshold for sweep net samples. Once sawfly larvae are detected, sample for larvae in 5 foot of row innerspace in 5-10 locations in a field to make a treatment decision. You will need to shake the plants to dislodge sawfly larvae that feed on the plants during the day. As a guideline, a treatment should be applied when you find 2 larvae per 5 foot of row innerspace or 0.4 larvae per foot of row. If armyworms and sawflies are present in the same field, the threshold for each should be reduced by one-half. Also, the higher rates of insecticides are needed for grass sawfly control.

Early Season Pythium and Phytophthora Control in Pepper and Tomato Crops

Thursday, April 19th, 2012

Andy Wyenandt, Specialist in Vegetable Pathology, Rutgers University; wyenandt@aesop.rutgers.edu

With the dry spring we’ve had thus far, it’s easy to forget about Pythium and Phytophthora! The same question always comes up about this time of year when growers begin to start thinking about transplanting their tomato and pepper crops. “What should I do to help prevent Pythium and Phytophthora?”. In years past, the answer was simple, apply mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold SL, Ultra Flourish, 4) or metalaxyl (MetaStar, 4). Problem solved, right? In the past, that answer was right, but with resistance development in Phytophthora (P. capsici) to both mefenoxam and metalaxyl, the correct answer isn’t so simple anymore. It’s important to remember that both chemistries will work very well as long as resistance hasn’t been detected on your farm.

How do you know if you have resistance? The easiest way is to follow efficacy. If the chemistries no longer provide the control they once did, then there is a good chance you have mefenoxam-insensitive Phytophthora populations present on your farm. There are also lab services which test for resistance. Remember, once resistance develops it can linger around for a very long time. Therefore, proper crop rotation and resistance management is critical before resistance has the chance to develop.

Our options for pre-transplant applications include a Ranman (cyazofamid, 21) drench one week before transplanting for Pythium in tomatoes as well as Previcur Flex (propamocarb HCL, 28) for the suppression of Pythium and Phytopthora in tomatoes and peppers. Phosphite fungicides, such as ProPhyt and K-Phite (FRAC code 33) can also be applied as a pre-transplant drench in the greenhouse. Additionally, there are a number of biologicals such as Trichoderma, Streptomyces, and Bacillus products which can also be used in the greenhouse to help suppress soil-borne pathogens. Remember, the biologicals need to be applied without conventional fungicides.

At transplanting applications now include Ranman (cyazofamid, 21) in the transplant water or through drip irrigation for Pythium control. There is a section 2ee for the use of Previcur Flex (propamocarb HCL, 28) + Admire Pro (imidacloprid) in transplanting water for Pythium control. Presidio (fluopicolide, 43) now has a label for drip application for Phytophthora control when conditions are favorable for disease development. Additionally, phosphite fungicides, Pro-Phyt and K-Phite (FRAC code 33) can also be applied through drip irrigation at transplanting to help suppress Phytophthora blight. Unlike in the past, there are a number of good options for early season control of these pathogens, it just takes a little bit more planning ahead of time. For further details on use and crop labeled please refer to the specific fungicide label. Remember the label is the law.

Plastic Mulch Beds and Dry Soils

Thursday, April 19th, 2012

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist; gcjohn@udel.edu

Due to dry weather, a significant amount of plastic mulch has been laid this year in dry soils and in soils with more clods than normal. This can be problematic for a number of reasons. The first is related to bed heating. For effective heat transfer, plastic mulch should be laid tight on a firm bed and the soil should be moist. Moisture is also critical for heat accumulation, because water absorbs more heat than soil minerals. In dry and cloddy soils much of the heating benefit of the mulch is lost. Root growth will be slowed and crops will be delayed. Another issue is water movement in the bed. Clods create large air spaces that limit capillary water movement thus reducing how much of the bed that can be wetted during an irrigation event as drip irrigation is started.

With rain forecast for this weekend, soil conditions should improve for plastic laying. Where overhead irrigation is available, irrigating soils prior to working ground and laying plastic is also an option in dry conditions.

Updated Fertilization Recommendations for Drip Irrigated Crops

Thursday, April 19th, 2012

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist; gcjohn@udel.edu

Extension specialists in the Mid-Atlantic have updated fertilizer recommendations for drip irrigated plasticulture production of crops in the Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations. The following are recommendations for watermelons and tomatoes.

Suggested Fertilizer Program Using Trickle Irrigation for Watermelons

Days After Planting

Daily

Cumulative

Nitrogen1

Potash1,2

Nitrogen1

Potash1,2

——————–lbs/A——————–

Preplant3

25

50

0-14

1.0

1.0

39

64

15-28

1.5

1.5

60

85

29-56

2.0

2.0

116

141

57-78

1.5

1.5

137

166

79-93

1.0

1.0

150

175

1Adjust rates accordingly if you apply more or less preplant nitrogen and potash.
2Base overall application rate on soil test recommendations.
3Applied under plastic mulch to effective bed area using modified broadcast method. Adjust as needed.
Note: recommendations are based on 8 foot bed centers. If beds are narrower, fertilizer rates per acre should be adjusted proportionally. Drive rows should not be used in acreage calculations.

Suggested Fertigation Schedule – Fresh Market Tomatoes

Days After Planting

Daily

Cumulative

Nitrogen1

Potash1,2

Nitrogen1

Potash1,2

——————–lbs/A——————–

Preplant3

50

125

0-14

0.5

0.5

57

132

15-28

0.7

0.7

67

142

29-42

1.0

1.0

81

156

43-56

1.5

1.5

102

177

57-77

2.2

2.2

148

223

78-98

2.5

2.5

201

276

1Adjust rates accordingly if you apply more or less preplant nitrogen and potash.
2Base overall application rate on soil test recommendations.
3Applied under plastic mulch to effective bed area using modified broadcast method. Adjust as needed.
Note: recommendations are based on 6 foot bed centers. If beds are narrower, fertilizer rates per acre should be adjusted proportionally. Drive rows should not be used in acreage calculations.

Additional recommendations can be found in the Recommendation which is also online at this site: http://ag.udel.edu/extension/vegprogram/publications.htm.

Scout Emerging Potato Fields for Seed-Born Late Blight Infections

Thursday, April 19th, 2012

Bob Mulrooney, Extension Plant Pathologist; bobmul@udel.edu

There have been several reports of late blight from Florida. The most recent was a report from north Florida in the Hastings area that was identified early, fungicides were applied and the situation is under control. This is a reminder that there was late blight in many of the seed producing areas last season. In spite of all the precautions and seed testing that occurs to reduce the chance of seed tuber infections, infections can occur if the weather is right and the seed is infected. Be sure to be checking fields as they emerge for any seed born infections. Apply fungicide sprays of mancozeb or chlorothalonil once the plants begin to touch down the row. There is a late blight monitoring website http://usablight.org/ that you can use to see what is happening around the country with late blight on tomato and potato.

Vegetable Crop Insects – April 20, 2012

Thursday, April 19th, 2012

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Asparagus
Continue to check asparagus spears for eggs as well as adult beetles feeding on spears. As a general guideline, a treatment is recommended if 2% of the spears are infested with eggs. Since adults will also feed on the spears, a treatment is recommended if 5% of the plants are infested with adults. For a picture of asparagus beetle eggs, adults and larvae please refer to the following link:
http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/horticulture/M1199.html

Melons
As soon as plants are set in the field, begin scouting for aphids, cucumber beetles and spider mites. When sampling for aphids, be sure to watch for beneficial insects as well since they can help to crash aphid populations. As a general guideline, a treatment should be applied for aphids when 20 percent of the plants are infested, with at least 5 aphids per leaf but before populations explode.

Potatoes
As soon as plants emerge, be sure to sample fields for Colorado potato beetle adults, especially if an at-planting material was not used. A treatment should not be needed for adults until you find 25 beetles per 50 plants and defoliation has reached the 10% level

2012 Wye REC Strawberry Twilight

Thursday, April 12th, 2012

Wednesday, May 9, 2012     6:00-8:00 p.m.
Wye Research and Education Center
Farm Operations Complex, 211 Farm Lane, Queenstown, MD
(Directional signs will be posted.)

You’ll hear University of Maryland and USDA small fruit experts discuss the current season’s challenges and the impact that the new fruit pest may have on the industry.

You’ll see: USDA Moveable High Tunnel plots with plasticulture strawberry production; University of MD Strawberry High Tunnel plots with table top production demonstration and bio-fumigation trial; and Outdoor Plasticulture Fertility Trial plots with Chandler strawberries.

Refreshments will be served.

The meeting will be held rain or shine.  Pre-registration is not necessary. For additional program information, contact Mike Newell, mnewell@umd.edu, (410) 827-7388. If you need special assistance to attend this program, please contact Debby Dant ddant@umd.edu, (410) 827-8056, no later than May 2, 2012.