Kate Everts, Vegetable Pathologist, University of Delaware and University of Maryland; firstname.lastname@example.org
Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB)
BFB of watermelon, which is caused by the bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, produces large olive green to brown water-soaked lesions on fruit, making them unmarketable. Symptoms of BFB on seedlings are water-soaked areas of the lower surface of the cotyledons and inconspicuous lesions on leaves. BFB lesions will become necrotic often with yellow halos. Lesions are frequently delimited by veins. Infected seedlings collapse and die.
If the bacterium is present, conditions in greenhouse transplant houses are highly favorable for the development of BFB symptoms and the spread of disease. Good practices for greenhouse transplant production are to disinfect surfaces before planting (benches, walls, walkways, etc.). The seed source should have tested negative for the pathogen with a minimum assay number of 10,000 seeds. Clean transplant trays (disinfect trays if they will be reused) and new soil must be used. Destroy any volunteer seedlings and keep the area in and around the greenhouse weed free. Avoid overhead watering if at all possible, or water in the middle of the day so that the plants dry thoroughly before evening. The bacterium can spread on mist and aerosols, so keep relative humidity as low as possible through proper watering and good air circulation in the greenhouse. Separate different seedlots, to reduce lot-to-lot spread. If BFB is suspected, collect a sample and submit it to your Extension educator, or specialist. Destroy all trays with symptomatic plants. Remove adjoining trays to a separate – isolated – area for observation. Monitor these isolated seedlings daily and destroy trays where symptoms develop. The remaining trays should be sprayed with a labeled fungicide and the applications continued until the plants are transplanted to the field.
Olive green water-soaked lesion on watermelon fruit. (Image courtesy David B. Langston, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org)
An inconspicuous lesion of bacterial fruit blotch on a watermelon transplant.
Other Greenhouse Diseases:
Angular leaf spot, which also is a bacterial disease, looks similar to BFB. This “look-alike” disease occurred in Delmarva’s greenhouses several years ago. Symptoms are small dark brown irregular lesions on cotyledons or leaves. Angular leaf spot is favored by cool wet weather. Usually conditions after transplanting to the field do not favor angular leaf spot disease development.
The fungal diseases gummy stem blight, Alternaria leaf blight, anthracnose, and Fusarium wilt can also be introduced into the greenhouse on watermelon seed or through inoculum from a previous crop. Diseases that are transmitted on seed often are randomly located throughout the greenhouse. Initial infections will occur as ‘foci’ or clusters of diseased plants.
Gummy stem blight infected transplants occur as clusters in an area around the initial infected seedling (foci).
Although I have not seen Fusarium wilt infected transplants in local commercial greenhouses, it has occurred in other states. Symptoms are wilted seedlings that may remain green or become chlorotic (yellow). This disease is of special concern because new strains or races can be introduced into an area on seedlings grown from infested seed.
Bottom line: If the seedlings appear diseased, identification of the problem is critical. Do not ship any trays containing plants with disease symptoms.