Posts Tagged ‘brambles’

Sunburn in Fruits and Fruiting Vegetables

Friday, July 6th, 2012

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist; gcjohn@udel.edu

High temperatures, clear skies and high light radiation, and long daylengths are a recipe for developing sunburn in fruits and fruiting vegetables. We commonly see sunburn in watermelons, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, cucumbers, apples, strawberries, and brambles (raspberries and blackberries).

There are three types of sunburn which may have effects on the fruit. The first, sunburn necrosis, is where skin, peel, or fruit tissue dies on the sun exposed side of the fruit. Cell membrane integrity is lost in this type of sunburn and cells start leaking their contents. The critical fruit tissue temperature for sunburn necrosis varies with type of fruit. For cucumbers research has shown that the fruit skin temperature threshold for sunburn necrosis is 100 to 104°F; for peppers, the threshold is 105 to 108°F, and for apples the critical fruit skin temperature is 125-127 °F. Fruits with sunburn necrosis are not marketable.

The second type of sunburn injury is sunburn browning. This sunburn does not cause tissue death but does cause loss of pigmentation resulting in a yellow, bronze, or brown spot on the sun exposed side of the fruit. Cells remain alive, cell membranes retain their integrity, cells do not leak, but pigments such as chlorophyll, carotenes, and xanthophylls are denatured or destroyed. This type of sunburn browning occurs at a temperature about 5°F lower than sunburn necrosis (115 to 120° F in apples). Light is required for sunburn browning. Fruits may be marketable but will be a lower grade.

The third type of sunburn is photooxidative sunburn. This is where shaded fruit are suddenly exposed to sunlight as might occur with late pruning, after storms where leaf cover is suddenly lost, or when vines are turned in drive rows. In this type of sunburn, the fruits will become photobleached by the excess light because the fruit is not acclimatized to high light levels, and fruit tissue will die. This bleaching will occur at much lower fruit temperatures than the other types of sunburn.

Genetics also play a role in sunburn and some varieties are more susceptible to sunburn. Varieties with darker colored fruit, those with more open canopies, and those with more open fruit clusters have higher risk of sunburn. Some varieties have other genetic properties that predispose them to sunburn, for example, some blackberries are more susceptible to fruit damage from UV light.

Control of sunburn in fruits starts with developing good leaf cover in the canopy to shade the fruit. Fruits most susceptible to sunburn will be those that are most exposed, especially those that are not shaded in the afternoon. Anything that reduces canopy cover will increase sunburn, such as foliar diseases, wilting due to inadequate irrigation, and excessive or late pruning. Physiological leaf roll, common in some solanaceous crops such as tomato, can also increase sunburn.

In crops with large percentages of exposed fruits at risk of sunburn, fruits can be protected by artificial shading using shade cloth (10-30% shade). However, this is not practical for large acreages. For sunburn protection at a field scale, use of film spray-on materials can reduce or eliminate sunburn. Many of these materials are Kaolin clay based and leave a white particle film on the fruit (such as Surround, Screen Duo, and many others). There are also film products that protect fruits from sunburn but do not leave a white residue, such as Raynox. Apply these materials at the manufacturer’s rates for sunburn protection. They may have to be reapplied after heavy rains or multiple overhead irrigation events.

Its All About Light

Thursday, April 29th, 2010

Gordon Johnson, Extension Fruit & Vegetable Specialist; gcjohn@udel.edu

Production of high yields of quality fruit requires adapted varieties, close attention to disease and insect management, balanced plant nutrients, and good weather conditions. One of the other key areas that growers need to consider is light. Leaves require adequate light levels to produce sugars by photosynthesis. These sugars are then translocated into developing fruit. Sugars also provide the building blocks of other flavor components. With this in mind, a very important aspect of fruit management is to insure even light distribution throughout the plant canopy. This applies equally to small fruits and tree fruits.

The following are some considerations to achieve this even light distribution and to manage for the best combination of yield and fruit quality.

1) Play close attention to plant densities and do not overcrowd plants. While more plants often means higher yields, excess shading at high populations can lead to reduced quality. Crops like matted row strawberries bear the most fruit and best quality fruit on the edges of the row. In most fruit crops, fruits on the interior of dense canopies often have poorer color, reduced sugars, and poorer flavor.

2) Choose pruning and training systems that allow for even light distribution. In fruits such as peaches, this is achieved by pruning so that scaffold branches are arranged in a open form V or vase shaped form. In crops that use a central leader system such as apples, it means pruning to appropriate spacings and orientations between scaffolds to allow for good light penetration. In summer bearing brambles, this means having trellis wires arranged so that fruiting canes are to the outside where they can receive the most light and training new canes to the in the middle. Pruning canes higher will also allow for more light along the length of the cane, however, they should not be so tall that they shade neighboring rows.

3) Thinning fruiting material and thinning foliage is often necessary for good fruit quality, color development, and uniform ripening. Leaf thinning is practiced in grapes for this reason. Thinning of blueberry canes to remove old and weak material is another example as is detail pruning of many tree fruits to remove excess fruiting wood and allow in more light.