Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist; firstname.lastname@example.org
Transplant production is underway throughout the region. Cabbage, tomatoes, peppers, watermelons, cantaloupes, cucumbers, squash, lettuce, and even pole lima beans are commonly transplanted along with many other vegetables.
Producing quality transplants starts with disease free seed, a clean greenhouse and clean planting trays. Many of our vegetable disease problems including bacterial spot, bacterial speck, bacterial canker, gummy stem blight, bacterial fruit blotch, tomato spotted wilt virus, impatiens necrotic spot virus, and Alternaria blight can start in the greenhouse and be carried to the field. A number of virus diseases are transmitted by greenhouse insects.
Buy disease indexed seeds when available. To reduce bacterial seed borne diseases in some crops such as tomatoes, peppers, and cabbages, seeds can be hot water treated. Chlorine treatment can also be useful on some seeds as a surface treatment but will not kill pathogens inside the seed. Go to this factsheet for more details: http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/3000/3085.html.
If possible, do not grow ornamental plants in the same greenhouse as your vegetable transplants and do not overwinter any plants in areas where transplants are to be grown.
For greenhouse growing areas, remove any weeds and dead plant materials and clean floors and benches thoroughly of any organic residue. Use a disinfectant applied to surfaces to kill pathogens. Choices are: quaternary ammonium products (Qam), chlorine bleach in a 1 part bleach to 9 parts water ratio, or hydrogen dioxide products. If possible, use new planting trays. If trays are reused, then one of these products should be used to disinfest trays. Bleach and Qam products require 10 or more minutes of contact to be effective.
One of the most important considerations is managing stretch or height of transplants. The goal is to have a transplant of a size that it can be handled by mechanical transplanters without damage and that have reduced susceptibility to wind.
Managing transplant height can be a challenge. Most growth regulators that are used for bedding plants are not registered for vegetable transplants. One exception is Sumagic which is registered for use as a foliar spray on tomato, pepper, eggplant, groundcherry, pepino and tomatillo transplants. See this past WCU article for more information http://agdev.anr.udel.edu/weeklycropupdate/?p=804. Research is being conducted on ABA products for transplant management and other products may be registered in the future.
For other crops alternative methods for height control must be used. One method that is successful is the use of temperature differential or DIF, the difference between day and night temperatures in the greenhouse. In most heating programs, a greenhouse will be much warmer in the daytime than nighttime. The greater this difference, the more potential for stretch. By reducing the day-night temperature difference, or reversing it, you can greatly reduce stem elongation. The critical period during a day for height control is the first 2 to 3 hours following sunrise. By lowering the temperature during this 3-hour period plant height in many vegetables can be controlled. Drop air temperature to 50° – 55°F for 2-3 hours starting just before dawn, and then go back to 60° – 70°F. Vegetables vary in their response to DIF. For example, tomatoes are very responsive, squash is much less responsive.
Mechanical movements over transplants can also reduce size. You accomplish this by brushing over the tops twice daily with a pipe or wand made of soft or smooth material. Crops responding to mechanical height control include tomatoes, eggplant, and cucumbers. Peppers are damaged with this method.
Managing water can be a tool to control stretch in some vegetables. After plants have sufficient size, allow plants to go through some stress cycles, allowing plants to approach wilting before watering again. Be careful not to stress plants so much that they are damaged.
Managing greenhouse fertilizer programs is another tool for controlling height. Most greenhouse media comes with a starter nutrient charge, good for about 3-4 weeks. After that, you need to apply fertilizers, commonly done with a liquid feed program. Greenhouse fertilizers that are high in ammonium forms of nitrogen will cause more stretch than those with high amounts of nitrate nitrogen sources. Fertilizers that are high in phosphorus will also tend to lead to stretch.
Exposing plants to outside conditions is used for the hardening off process prior to transplanting. You can also use this for height control during the production period. Roll out benches that can be moved outside of the greenhouse for a portion of the day or wagons that can be moved into and out of the greenhouse can be used for this.
Seedless watermelons have specific requirements: germination at high temperatures for 24 hours (to achieve even germination) then move immediately into a cooler greenhouse to grow out. See this past WCU article for more information http://agdev.anr.udel.edu/weeklycropupdate/?p=1714.
Many growers choose not to produce their own transplants but contract with greenhouse growers locally or in the South. Majorities of these transplants are of high quality and perform well in the field. However, each year, there are some shipments that have problems. The most common problem is transplants shipped before they are ready – without adequate root systems. These transplants will not perform well in the field, especially in earlier plantings. If possible, they should be placed in a greenhouse to finish growing before use.
Another issue is diseases. Bacterial diseases (such as bacterial spot), fungal blights (such as Alternaria or Gummy Stem), and viruses (such as Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus and INSV) have all been found in transplants at times. If a disease is suspected, have it quickly diagnosed and inform the Plant Industries section of the Delaware Department of Agriculture. Do not plant diseased plants in the field. Southern grown transplants are most often the source so make sure that you are dealing with a grower with a good reputation for producing disease free plants.
Plants that are shipped without trays (already pulled) or that are bare rooted that are packed tightly in boxes must be planted quickly. Delays will lead to plant deterioration, leaf loss, and potential disease buildup.