Posts Tagged ‘peas’

Pea Harvest Began Early

Friday, May 18th, 2012

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist; gcjohn@udel.edu

Pea harvest began around May 15 this year. This is the earliest harvest in recent memory. Early peas under irrigation have exceeded 4000 lbs/a. Areas outside of pivots and without irrigation were hit hard by the early drought this year and are yielding less than 2000 lbs/a. Current weather has been favorable for pea development.

Early Peas Damaged by Freezing

Friday, March 30th, 2012

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist; gcjohn@udel.edu

Early peas have suffered damage by the freezing winds on Monday night. Peas normally will stand cold temperatures down to the low 20s. However the combination of high winds (gusts up to 50 mph), freezing temperatures (25-30°F), and peas well ahead of schedule on growth (some as tall as 6 inches) set up conditions for plant damage. Areas protected by wood lines and hedgerows were not damaged. Peas planted later that were just cracking the ground were also not damaged.

Peas are interesting in that if the top is frosted to the ground level, they will develop new stems from dormant buds below ground. There will be 1-3 new stems that develop. This will be seen within a week after the frost. These stems will develop and flower later than undamaged plants. Generally, frost damaged peas will yield 5-20% less due to the differences in maturities in the field and having weaker plants.

Vegetable Crops are Off to an Early Start

Thursday, March 29th, 2012

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist; gcjohn@udel.edu & Emmalea Ernest, Extension Associate-Vegetable Crops; emmalea@udel.edu

Asparagus harvest began last week which is four weeks early. Pea planting is ahead of schedule with heat units accumulating much more rapidly than the thirty year average making it likely that harvest will not extend past June. Peas have emerged rapidly and stands look very good. Average soil temperatures have already been in the mid 60s. Some fresh market sweet corn growers have their first and second plantings in already and sweet corn under plastic has emerged and is growing fast. Plastic mulch laying for summer crops is already underway. As we progress into April, a concern will be the potential for frosts and freezes with advanced crops.

The earliest peas will start flowering at less than 675 heat units and will be at full flower at 775 heat units. Currently, peas planted on February 25 have accumulated 306 heat units. In 2011 during the same period only 181 heat units accumulated. If accumulations continue at an accelerated pace and peas flower early, there is increased risk for frost damage to flowers in early plantings, causing reduced yields, and split sets.

Early planted sweet corn can also be at higher risk this year of frost damage. If the sweet corn growing point is not out of the ground and a freeze occurs, the emerged leaves will be injured but the plants can continue to grow. The growing point of sweet corn is still below or at ground level until the 5-6 leaf stage and is therefore protected against frost injury. If a frost or freeze event does occur with sweet corn, wait 3-4 days to evaluate. If you seed signs of regrowth, the sweet corn can recover. If regrowth is not evident, start splitting the stems of a sample of plants and look at the growing point. If it is firm and white or cream colored it is still alive. If it is soft, water soaked, or gray in color, it has died and you will lose some stand.

Processing sweet corn planting will begin in the next 2 weeks. It is interesting to note that the industry is moving to supersweet varieties for processing. In the past, our recommendations were to avoid early planting of supersweets and wait until soil temperatures were above 65° F, because these varieties tended to have less seed vigor. In 2010 and 2011 we planted supersweet variety trials on April 12. Surprisingly, a number of the supersweet varieties we tested had emergence rates over 90%. This suggests that high quality seed of supersweet varieties with demonstrated cold tolerance can probably be planted earlier, before soil temperatures reach 65°F. Detailed reports on the 2010 and 2011 trials are available online at http://ag.udel.edu/extension/vegprogram/trialresults.htm. This year, early April supersweet plantings may be justified, given that soils have already warmed substantially.

Some rye windbreaks used for watermelon and other vegetable protection have already reached full height and are heading out. Growers may have to kill windbreaks much earlier than normal or realize that seed will likely set which is a problem if rotating into wheat or barley (seed mixing with rye next year). Forage radishes and spring oats did not fully winter kill this year.

As we go into next week, highs are forecast in the 60s and 70s. However the extended forecast for both 6-10 and 8-14 days from NOAA is for “enhanced odds for below average temperature along the Mid-Atlantic”

Pea Herbicides

Friday, March 2nd, 2012

Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu

Weed control options remain limited for processing peas. Pursuit, at 1.5 to 2.0 fluid ounces per acre, needs to be used as a pre-plant incorporated or preemergence treatment and is used primarily for broadleaf weeds. Preemergence applications of Command at 8 to 16 fl oz or Dual at 0.5 to 1 pt/A are labeled for control of annual grasses and some broadleaf weeds. Basagran and Thistrol are labeled for postemergence control of broadleaf weeds. Apply Basagran at 1.5 to 2 pints per acre after peas have more than three pairs of leaves. Do not add oil concentrate. Select, Assure II, Targa, or Poast can be used for postemergence grass control.

Pea Planting

Friday, March 2nd, 2012

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist; gcjohn@udel.edu

Pea planting has started across the region. A common problem with early pea plantings is compaction and resulting yield losses, particularly where field operations were performed when soils were too wet. Much of the loss is due to reduced germination or seedling death. In addition, early maturing (low heat unit) peas have a lower yield potential and cannot compensate for stand losses as well as later maturing varieties. Compacted soils also set up conditions favorable to the development of root rots which further limit yields. Research has shown that root rot severity can be increased by over 50% in peas where there is heavy compaction.

Another interesting note on peas is the potential to increase overall yields by planting longer maturing varieties, even for the early plantings. Long season varieties have greater genetic potential for producing high yields. While processors will want to plant early varieties to start the season to supply factories starting at the end of May, including later maturing varieties in early plantings will produce higher yields for the next round of harvests in early June and then onward.

Processing Acres Up This Year

Friday, March 2nd, 2012

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist; gcjohn@udel.edu

Processing vegetable acres will be up this year in Delaware and on Delmarva including peas, lima beans, and sweet corn. Pickle acreage will remain steady. This increase in acres is largely due to reduction in stocks. For example, for lima beans, cold storage stocks in January 2011 were 58 million pounds and in January 2012 these stocks were down to 44 million pounds. Peas were down from 234 to 210 million pounds and sweet corn was down from 521 to 436 million pounds. This drop in sweet corn stocks is a major driver in picking up acres. It is interesting to note that in 2011, Delmarva lima bean acres were close to 19,000. This represented over 60% of the US acres and 40% of the production. California acres are down due to competition for land with more profitable crops.

High Temperature Effects on Peas

Friday, June 3rd, 2011

Gordon Johnson, Extension Vegetable & Fruit Specialist; gcjohn@udel.edu

Recently, we have had reports of pea fields with reduced seed set. Peas are best adapted to areas with warm days and cool nights. Extended high temperatures in excess of 85º F will cause yield declines in pea by reducing the number of seeds that are carried to harvest.

Experiments have shown that yields can be reduced by as much as 20% with a 5º increase in temperature from 85-90ºF. It has been shown that when peas are exposed to extended periods with high temperatures above 85º F that yields will decline greatly, especially in sensitive varieties. High temperatures in the last 10 days have been >85º F in much of the region.

The critical period where seed set will be reduced is late bloom. If the plant cannot support the full number of seeds due to high respiration and premature stomatal closure, seeds will abort or will not fill.

 

Pea Herbicides

Thursday, April 14th, 2011

Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu

Weed control options remain limited for processing peas. Pursuit, at 1.5 to 2.0 fluid ounces per acre, needs to be used as a pre-plant incorporated or preemergence treatment and is used primarily for broadleaf weeds. Preemergence applications of Command (8 to 16 fl oz) or Dual (0.5 to 1 pt/A) are labeled for control of annual grasses and some broadleaf weeds. Basagran and Thistrol are labeled for postemergence control of broadleaf weeds. Apply Basagran at 1.5 to 2 pints per acre after peas have more than three pairs of leaves. Do not add oil concentrate. Select, Assure II, Targa, or Poast can be used for postemergence grass control.

 

Pea Herbicides

Friday, March 11th, 2011

Mark VanGessel, Extension Weed Specialist; mjv@udel.edu

Weed control options remain limited for processing peas. Pursuit, at 1.5 to 2.0 fl oz/A, needs to be used as a pre-plant incorporated or preemergence treatment and is used primarily for broadleaf weeds. Preemergence applications of Command at 8 to 16 fl oz or Dual at 0.5 to 1 pt/A are labeled for control of annual grasses and some broadleaf weeds. Basagran and Thistrol are labeled for postemergence control of broadleaf weeds. Apply Basagran at 1.5 to 2 pt/A after peas have more than three pairs of leaves. Do not add oil concentrate. Select, Assure II, Targa, or Poast can be used for postemergence grass control.

Vegetable Crop Insects – April 10, 2010

Thursday, April 29th, 2010

Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist; jwhalen@udel.edu

Asparagus
With the predicted warm temperatures, you can expect to see an increase in egg laying by asparagus beetles adults on spears. As a general guideline, a treatment is recommended if 2% of the spears are infested with eggs. Since adults also feed on the spears, a treatment is recommended if 5% of the plants are infested with adults. For a picture of asparagus beetle eggs, adults and larvae please refer to the following link: http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/horticulture/M1199.html

Cabbage
Continue to scout fields for imported cabbage worm and diamondback larvae. The first larvae can be found and sprays will be needed before they move deep into the heads. As a general guideline, a treatment is recommended if you find 5% of the plants infested with larvae. There are a number of effective materials available for worm control. Please refer to the following link for a list of materials http://ag.udel.edu/extension/vegprogram/pdf/colecrops.pdf

Melons
As soon as plants are set in the field, begin scouting for aphids, cucumber beetles and spider mites. When sampling for aphids, be sure to watch for beneficial insects as well, since they can help to crash aphid populations. As a general guideline, a treatment should be applied for aphids when 20% of the plants are infested, with at least 5 aphids per leaf, but before populations explode.

Peas
We are starting to see an increase in aphid populations. On small plants, you should sample for aphids by counting the number of aphids on 10 plants in 10 locations throughout a field. On larger plants, take 10 sweeps in 10 locations. As a general guideline, a treatment is recommended if you find 5-10 aphids per plant or 50 or more aphids per sweep. When sampling dry land peas, you may want to reduce the threshold, especially if they are drought stressed. Be sure to check labels for application restrictions during bloom.

Sweet Corn
Be sure to scout the first emerged fields for cutworms and flea beetles. As a general guideline, treatments should be applied for cutworms if you find 3% cut plants or 10% leaf feeding. In order to get an accurate estimate of flea beetle populations, fields should be scouted midday when beetles are active. A treatment will be needed if 5% of the plants are infested with beetles.